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Psych 102, Dr. Bennett

by: Rebecca Goldman

Psych 102, Dr. Bennett PSYC 102

Rebecca Goldman
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About this Document

These notes are from the first class on the history of psychology.
Honors Introduction to Psychology
Amy L. Bennet
Class Notes
history, Psychology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Goldman on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 102 at Towson University taught by Amy L. Bennet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
I. Introduction What is Psychology? The science of behavior and cognitive processes Science – empirically tested using scientific method Behaviors – visible actions Cognitive processes – memory, thoughts, etc. Behaviors and cognitive processes together make up Psychology  A. History History of Psychology Grew from philosophy and physiology Plato­ wrote about memory Descartes­“I think therefore I am” Also tried to understand the structure of the brain Physiologists: Hippocrates­ wrote about the 4 humors and used them for explanations for psychological explanations Injuries/accidents­ Phineas Gage had a metal rod through his head. Physiologists studied  him after the accident. He was extremely emotional and child­like. Could not  control his emotions or take part in normal social gatherings.  1. Birth of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 1879­ Birth of psychology  Wanted to use science to study the questions of the mind Studied conscious experience Came up with Introspection: Systematic self­ observation of one’s own conscious experience Introspection was not reliable because it varies from person to person 2. Late 1800’s – Early 1900’s Structuralism Edward Titchener­ Studied the structure/elements of consciousness Studied specifically sensation and perception How individual components contribute to the large picture of consciousness  Only used introspection Was mean and didn’t believe in any research that didn’t use introspection and or  anyone who was not part of his group who studied and was trained with introspection *Reminder* Introspection is too bias and is not reliable* Functionalism William James­Studied the function of consciousness Heavily influenced by Darwin and was interested in evolution Saw if consciousness had an impact on human’s ability to survive Interested on consciousness’ function Studied gender differences, education, testing, development Approach ore philosophical than scientific Wasn’t imperialistically testing anything (scientifically testing things) Psychoanalysis Freud­Theorized about unconscious Saw how the unconsciousness physically effects the body Was a physician­ not as interested in making studies in the lab but taking care of  patients Came up with theories: Psychosexual stages (over­eat, chew on pens), id, ego, superego, defense mechanisms (things so hard you repress them) Very controversial because of sexual nature of some theories Idea of patient laying on couch while therapist sits comes from how Freud would talk to patients and reveal what was going on in the unconscious Behaviorism John Watson­ Only study observable behaviors Wanted a more scientific approach (wanted psychology to be more like physics) Only studied observable behaviors to be able to study more measurable variables No study of consciousness or cognitive processes and only focused on behavior Believed in Nurture over nature Behaviorism became the most influential field in psychology for about 50 years Pavlov­ Described classical conditioning Started as a physiologist who studied digestion Realized dogs salivated when technicians came into the room instead of when food came out The dogs paired the stimuli of the dogs seeing the technicians and new food  would come Influenced Watson and Behaviorism 3. Mid­1900’s Behaviorism Continues B. F. Skinner­Emphasized operant conditioning (reward and punishment) Psychologists often say that within the field, Skinner had a more powerful  influence than Freud Made Skinner Box with lever. Every time animal presses lever gets reward, so  animal keeps doing it until reward stops Reward is more successful for people to follow direction than punishment if  people don’t do something Stimulus­response is the only way he studied psychology Humans no different than any other species When animal research starts within psychology Said free will is an illusion because he believed we are all responding to stimuli Humanism Humans are unique and basically good Became about when people got angry with Skinner’s theories and to oppose Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis Says humans are also constantly moving towards self­improvement Rogers and Maslow Applied Psychology­Focuses on practical problems instead of basic research Began during WWII: psychologists needed to see if people were fit for different  parts of the military Psychologists realized they liked practical research and left labs to work with  People: Counseling, school, psychology, testing, etc.  Cognitive Psychology­Encouraged the study of memory, thought, etc. Behaviorism couldn’t explain all research findings, so they created own part of  psychology to study cognitive parts (not always physically visible) Practical problems of WWII­ people would pull lever to explode plane because  they were under pressure and Behaviorism couldn’t explain this “Misbehavior of Organisms”­book that made fun of book that Skinner wrote Behaviorism couldn’t explain taste aversions (when you taste something bad and  never want to eat it again) Chomsky’s criticism of “Verbal Behavior” (another book by Skinner) All lead to Cognitive Psychology Physiological Psychology Studied the biology of behavior 4. Today Most schools still exist Cognitive and physiological are still major schools today Review Questions When did psychology begin? Who started Behaviorism? Who described classical conditioning? What is a Skinner Box? What is it used to study? Which school focuses on the unconscious? Be prepared to compare and contrast each of the different schools.


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