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Week 2 Chapter 2 Notes

by: Jacquelynn Burr

Week 2 Chapter 2 Notes General Psychology 1100

Jacquelynn Burr
College of DuPage

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The notes cover brief history as well as why we make some decisions that we do
General Psychology
Professor Colleen McCoy
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelynn Burr on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to General Psychology 1100 at College of DuPage taught by Professor Colleen McCoy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at College of DuPage.

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Date Created: 08/30/16
THE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE IN PSYCHOLOGY I. LOOKING FOR LAWS: THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO BEHAVIOR 1. Events are governed by some lawful order 2. Behavior is governed by discernable laws or principles A. GOALS OF SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE 1. Measurement and Description a. Measure phenomenon under study b. Develop measurement techniques to describe behavior clearly and precisely 2. Understanding and Prediction a. Understand events when they explain the reason for their occurrence 3. Hypothesis tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables a. Test predictions 4. Variables measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study 5. Application and Control 6. Theory system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations a. Leap from description of behavior to understanding of behavior b. Guide to future research by generating new predictions and suggesting new lines of inquiry c. Must be testable, empirical d. Gradual process always subject to revision B. STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION 1. Systematic, orderly pattern 2. Formulate a Testable Hypothesis a. Translate a theory or an intuitive idea into a testable hypothesis b. Predictions c. How changes in one variable will be related to changes in another variable d. Operational Definition actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable 1. Establish precisely what is meant by each variable in the context of a study 2. Clear formulations of relevant variables ResearchEnterpriseInPskw 08/17/09 1 3. Select the Research Method and Design the Study a. How to put the hypothesis to an empirical test b. Research method chosen depends on the nature of the question being studied c. Subjects or Participants persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study d. Experimental Design/Method e. Correlational Design f. Descriptive Design 4. Collect the data a. Data Collection Techniques procedures for making empirical observations and measurements 5. Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions a. Statistics 1. Descriptive - frequency score; % 2. Inferential - conclusions drawn from descriptive stats 6. Report the Findings a. Concise summary of the study and its findings 7. Journal periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material typically in a narrowly defined area of inquiry a. Allows other experts to evaluate and critique new research findings b. Self-correcting aspect 8. Research Methods differing approaches to the observation, measurement, and control of variables in empirical studies a. Selecting and tailoring II. LOOKING FOR CAUSES: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 1. Experiment research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result A. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE 1. Independent Variable condition or event that is varied in order to see its impact on the dependent variable free to be varied ResearchEnterpriseInPsykw 08/17/09 2 2. Dependent Variable affected by manipulation of independent variable B. EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS 1. Experimental Groups subjects receive treatment regarding independent variable 2. Control Group similar subjects who don’t receive the treatment administered to the experimental group C. EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES 1. Extraneous Variables variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable 2. Confounding Variables two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects 3. Random Assignment all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study III. LOOKING FOR LINKS: DESCRIPTIVE/CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH researcher can’t manipulate variable under study only describe patterns of behavior and discover links and associations between variables A. NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION 1. Naturalistic Observation careful, long-term observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects B. DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES 1. Case Study in-depth investigation of an individual subject 2. Interviewing 3. Direct observation ResearchEnterpriseInPskw 08/17/09 3 4. Examination of records/Archival records 5. Physiological testing 6. Questionnaires or surveys to gather information about specific aspects of subjects’ behavior IV. LOOKING FOR CONCLUSIONS: STATISTICS AND RESEARCH 1. Statistics use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data; computations A. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 1. Descriptive Statistics used to organize and summarize data frequency score; % 2. Central Tendency a. Median score falls exactly in the middle of a distribution of scores half scores above, half below b. Mean arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution add scores and divide by the total number of scores most useful because sensitive to extreme scores in a distribution c. Mode most frequent score in a distribution 3. Variability how much scores in a data set vary from each other and from the mean a. Standard Deviation index of the amount of variability in a set of data 4. Correlation two variables are related to each other a. Correlation Coefficient numerical index of the degree of the relationship between the two variables 1. Direction and strength of the association of the variables b. Positive versus Negative Correlation 1. Positive two variables covary in the same direction 2. Negative two variables covary in the opposite direction c. Strength of the Correlation 1. Size of the Coefficient covaries between 0 and +1.00 or between 0 and –1.00 2. Strength ResearchEnterpriseInPsykw 08/17/09 4 depends only on the size of the coefficient d. Positive or Negative Sign indicates direction of the relationship e. Correlation and Prediction as a correlation increases in strength the ability to predict one variable based on knowledge of the other variable increases as well; IV and DV B. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 1. Inferential Statistics interpret data and draw conclusions a. Evaluate the possibility that their results might be due to chance b. Statistical Significance probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low results are not likely to be due to chance 0.05 level of-significance amount of variability in the data V. LOOKING FOR FLAWS: EVALUATING RESEARCH minimize probability of obtaining significant differences when none really exists increases the likelihood of the opposite mistake - failing to find significant differences when the groups are really different 1. Replication repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated identify and purge erroneous findings A. SAMPLING BIAS 1. Sample collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study 2. Population much larger collection of animals or people that researchers want to generalize 3. Sampling Bias sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn B. PLACEBO EFFECTS given to control for effects of extraneous variable: subjects’ expectations ResearchEnterpriseInPsykw 08/17/09 5 1. Placebo Effects subjects expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment C. DISTORTIONS IN SELF-REPORT DATA 1. Social Desirability Bias tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself trying to gain a favorable impression 2. Response Set tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions D. EXPERIMENTER BIAS 1. Experimenter Bias researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcomes of a study influence the results obtained see what they want to see 2. Double-blind Procedure neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental of control groups ResearchEnterpriseInPsykw 08/17/09 6


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