Scientific Skepticism, Theoretical Frameworks, Research Methods and Descriptive Research
Scientific Skepticism, Theoretical Frameworks, Research Methods and Descriptive Research PSYC 1000
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Alex Northcutt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Cydney Tinsley Intro to Psych Day 3: Scientific Skepticism, Theoretical Frameworks, Research Methods, Descriptive Research Scientific Skepticism, Theoretical Frameworks, Research Methods, Descriptive Research 1. Scientific Skepticism a. The idea that ‘you have to convince me’ but you’re open and willing to be convinced. b. To be a good skeptic, one must use their Critical Thinking skills. Here are some skills and how to use them: i. Ruling out rival hypothesis: You should have another hypothesis but your own findings should rule it out. ii. Correlation doesn’t equal causation: Just because two things are related doesn’t mean one causes the other. iii. Falsifiability: You should be able to prove your research wrong. iv. Replicability: Must be able to replicate your findings across the board---replicate between people, labs, settings, etc. v. Extraordinary claims: A claim that is extravagant and typically requires immense amounts of additional proof. vi. Occam’s Razor: Asking ‘Is there a simpler explaination that’s true that can explain the finding?’ 2. Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology a. Wilhelm Wundt: The ‘Father of Psychology’. Opened first psychology lab in 1879. i. Structuralism: 1. Founded by Wilhelm Wundt. 2. Believed the mind could be broken down into parts and studied via introspection, which required trained persons to be aware of and explain their feelings, thoughts, emotions, etc. ii. Functionalism: 1. Followed Structuralism. 2. Believed that the mind is too changing to make it realistic to study the parts of the mind. 3. Instead wanted to understand the functions of the brain and their purposes. 4. Impacted by Darwin. 5. Had a very ‘Evolutionary Psychology’ approach; ie, how will having this trait help you to adapt or survive? iii. Behaviorism: 1. Followed Functionalism. 2. Wanted to measure behavior and the things you can see, such as reactions. 3. Strong believers and testers in/of positive and negative reinforcement. iv. Cognitivism: 1. Followed Behaviorism. Cydney Tinsley Intro to Psych Day 3: Scientific Skepticism, Theoretical Frameworks, Research Methods, Descriptive Research 2. Wanted to understand the role of mental processes as it relates to behavior. 3. Focused on problem-solving skills. v. Psychoanalysis: 1. You have an unconscious mind and it can influence your behavior, even if you’re not aware of it. 2. Ex: Your past experiences may impact you now, even if it’s subconscious. 3. Research Methods a. Correlation Research: The degree to which two variables are related. b. Positive Correlation: As one variable increases, the other variable also increases. c. Negative Correlation: As one variable increases, the other variable decreases. d. Illusory Correlation: When there appears to be a correlation, but the two variables don’t actually influence each other. i. Ex: In June, July, and August, the number of ice cream sales goes up, as does the number of murders. In actuality, the number of ice cream sales doesn’t influence the number of murders. (The most likely explaination is that the weather is hotter, which makes people want cold snacks or increases aggression). ii. Ex: Pirate shorages cause Global Warming. (Not really) e. Pros of Correlation Research: i. Helps you predict behaviors. ii. It’s a good stepping stone for research. f. Cons of Correlation Research: i. Can lead you astray. ii. You can’t infer causality. 4. Descriptive Research a. Naturalistic Observation: A team of scientists or a single scientist who observe organisms in their natural environment. High in External Validity and low in Internal. b. Case Study: When a scientist or group of scientists perform all of their research on or about one individual. Often times there is a large amount of documentation involved. High in Internal Validity and low in External. c. Validity: Does this measure what it’s supposed to measure? i. External Validity: How true to real life circumstances is this study designed? ii. Internal Validity: Ability to control variables. d. Generalizability: To what degree does this apply to the population?
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