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Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Notes

by: Kristyle L.

Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Notes Psych 2245

Marketplace > University of Missouri - St. Louis > Psychology > Psych 2245 > Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Notes
Kristyle L.
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About this Document

These notes cover part of what will be on Exam 1.
Abnormal Psychology
Francesca Manzella
Class Notes
Psychology, Abnormal psychology, history, and, Origins




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristyle L. on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2245 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by Francesca Manzella in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at University of Missouri - St. Louis.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
Abnormal Psychology Notes Chapter 1: History and Origins Aug 24, 2016 Movement Toward the Psychological Tradition  Moral Therapy – Treating patients as normally as possible in an environment that supports and encourages normal interaction. Surprise, surprise, most clients fare better when they are not restrained and isolated. “Training normality”  Pinel, Tuke, Rush – Influential in France, England, and America. Worked to make Moral Therapy the norm. Sometimes things get worse…  Dorthea Dix and the Mental Hygiene Movement o Tried to ensure that everyone who needed care received it. o Unfortunately, with an influx of patients, asylums were understaffed and “moral therapy” just wasn’t possible due to limited resources. o Biological tradition was still arguing for “incurable brain disease” as the main source of mental illness.  All of this together means the Psychological Tradition fell out of favor for awhile. o In the case of the mentally ill: Put them away rather than caring for them. Psychoanalysis-Freud & Co.  Overarching idea: Unconscious forces or drives can significantly influence behavior and mental health.  Hypnotism: Mesmer/Charcot → Freud → Breuer o Under hypnosis, patients became emotional and struggled to remember later. Thus, the Unconscious was discovered.  Catharsis and Insight – Revealing the unconscious can bring a fuller understanding of motivations and results in healing. Psychoanalytic Theory  Main Components o The structure of the mind includes pieces that may clash with one another o The mind generates defense mechanisms to protect itself from these clashes o There are stages of psychosexual development in which individuals can get “stuck,” thus strengthening our inner conflicts. Freud’s Personality Structure  Id-Sexual/Biological Drives-Immediate gratification  Ego-Rational, decision-making aspect of personality  Superego-Rules, prohibitions, moral reasoning Defense Mechanisms  Denial: Nope, that’s just not real (still conscious)  Displacement: My boss yelled at me, so I’ll yell at the Starbucks barista.  Projection: I’m not angry, you’re angry.  Rationalization: I have “good” reasons for feeling this way.  Reaction Formation: I have sexual desires, but my religion says that’s not okay, so I take a vow of abstinence.  Repression: Pushes disturbing thoughts out of conscious experience.  Sublimation: I have violent impulses, so I become a surgeon. Psychosexual Stages ● Oral: Infancy-1 year, Dependency/Trust ◦ Literal Fixation: Nail biting, Thumb-sucking, smoking, overeating ◦ Symbolic Fixation: Dependency or Cynicism ● Anal: 1-3 years, Control ◦ Expulsive Fixation: Low impulse control, disorganized ◦ Retentive Fixation: Overly controlled, “neat freak” ● Phallic: 3-6, View of self, Oedipus and Electra ◦ Child seeks to affiliate with parents ◦ Overindulgent fixation = Arrogant, self-centered child ◦ Under indulgent fixation = Insecure, self-doubting  Latent: 6-11, Most urges are repressed  Genital: 12+ years, Affiliation and Appropriate Sexual Relations o The final stage. No fixations. o If “healthy” > Marriage and Kids o If “unhealthy” > Isolation and/or deviancy Later Developments  Ego Psychology - Anna Freud o Focused on the ego’s defenses o More plausible for many theorists  Self-Psychology – Formation and understanding of self-concept  Jung’s “collective unconscious” - Cumulative experience of preceding generations Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy  Bringing the unconscious to conscious awareness through various techniques o Free Association o Dream Analysis – Focus on latent content o Implicit Relationship Variables  Transference – Client projects onto therapist  Countertransference – Therapist projects onto client  Lengthy course of therapy – YEARS  Still practiced today – Psychodynamic o Focus on emotion, process, relationship o More nuanced than psychoanalytic So, psychoanalysis?  Cons o Largely Unscientific-Self-reports o Subjective interpretations o Difficult to test  Pros o Foundational to the field of psychotherapy o Some constructs are still useful today o The unconscious does seem to exist, but perhaps it’s not Freud’s version (think driving skills) Humanistic Theory-Rogers  A reaction to Freud’s Psychoanalysis o While Freud saw people as conflicted and chaotic, Rogers saw people as growth oriented o People just need the right environment to grow and flourish o People are inherently self-actualizing.  Unconditional Positive Regard – I value you as a person, regardless of your actions  Empathy – Feeling “with” the client  Genuineness – The therapist should be honest and true to self. Behavioral Model  Yet another reaction to psychoanalysis  The behavior is all that matters. Focus on that which can be directly observed  Pavlov the Physiologist and Classical Conditioning o Primarily associated with reflexive/automatic responses. o Pavlov’s Dogs – Salivary Reflex o UCS → UCR o CS → UCS → UCR o CS → CR More Classical Conditioning  You eat a new food and then get sick because of a flu virus. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it. Ex. (NS) = Flu + (UCS) Food >> (UCR) Sick (CS) Food >> (CR) Nausea  Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building the shower becomes very hot and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes. Classical Conditioning ● Extinction – Getting rid of a conditioned response. ◦ How does it work? ◦ Differences between extinction and forgetting ● Spontaneous Recovery ● Stimulus Generalization ● Discrimination Watson’s Behaviorism ● Really studied classical conditioning as a psychological mechanism ● Watson’s most famous experiment: Little Albert and the White Rats (awesome band name, anyone?) ◦ ● Watson and his colleagues discovered that you could both condition and de- condition just about anything by pairing and unpairing stimuli ● “Unpairing” → “Systematic desensitization” → Behavior Therapy Wolpe’s Behavior Therapy ● Took the data from Watson’s lab, and began using systematic desensitization to treat ● Expose the clients to increasingly difficult stimuli, and allow them to see that the feared consequence will not occur ● Eliminate the fear by letting it naturally dissipate through a behavior hierarchy: ⚫ Picture of Spider ⚫ Imagine a spider ⚫ Virtual Reality Spider ⚫ Real Spider in Cage ⚫ Real Spider on table ⚫ Real Spider on hand ⚫ Real Spider on face. Skinner’s Behavior Therapy ● Continued the behavioral line of thinking – i.e. “Let’s focus on what we can see.” ● Added a new element: Operant Conditioning ● Organism “operates” on the environment ● Behavior changes based on consequences ◦ Reinforcement and Punishment ◦ Positive and Negative ● Shaping: Reinforcing successive approximations of a behavior


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