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Human Anatomy Note 8/26

by: Amanda Selly

Human Anatomy Note 8/26 BIOL 220

Amanda Selly
Minnesota State University, Mankato

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Here are the notes from class on August 26
Human Anatomy
Michael Bentley
Class Notes
anatomy, planes
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Selly on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 220 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Michael Bentley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 08/30/16
Human Anatomy Notes Amanda Selly August 26, 2016 A Homogenous: 1 Humans are the only homogenous creatures left 2 We have flattened faces 3 Relatively small teeth 4 A prominent chin 5 Our nostrils are inferior to the nose  Other primates have their nostrils lateral to the nose A Homosapiens: 1 Have a large brain in comparison to their body 2 Are people: were the only ones B Other Features of Humans 1 Opposable thumb gives us dexterity 2 Fully developed facial muscles gives us the ability to communicate emotions  We have facial communication: smile from  The development of our mouth muscles and our larynx we have the ability to speak. 3 Upright Posture:  This leads to confusion when talking about anatomical positioning in other primates. When humans walk forward we walk anteriorly and ventrally however for an animal that walks on all four legs like a dog the anterior direction is where their nose points and the ventral direction is where their belly is.  Anterior: forward in humans; direction of nose  Posterior: behind  Ventral: belly side of any creature  Dorsal: back side; where the dorsal fin would be on a dolphin  Coronal Section: would cut a person into a front side and a back side: a side with their face on it and a side with their butt on it  Transverse Section: cuts across the body creating a superior side and an inferior side  Superior: above  Inferior: below  Superior and Inferior direction are unique to humans while Cranial and Caudal directions are used for animals  Cranial: Towards head  Caudal: Towards tail  Sagittal Section: cuts the body in half resulting in a left and right side  When referring to anatomical directions we always use the subjects left and right side. B Body Cavities and Serous Membranes 1 Ventral Cavities:  Thoracic Cavity: chest  Abdominal Cavity: stomach  Pelvic Cavity: hips and pelvis  Sometimes called the Abdomino- Pelvic Cavity when combining the two cavities 2 Dorsal Cavities:  Cranial Cavity: brain  Spinal Cavity: spinal chord 3 Other Cavities: Oral cavity   Nasal cavity  Middle ear cavity  Pharynx  Larynx  And more 1 Abdominal Transverse Section:  Vertebra  Notochord  Spinal cavity  Kidneys  Dorsal mesentery  Ventral Mesentery  Through digestive/ intestinal tract  Peritoneal cavity: cavity between the visceral and parietal peritoneum  Visceral peritoneum: the inside lining of the peritoneal cavity  Parietal Peritoneum: the wall linings 2 Thoracic Transverse Section a Mediastinum: the middle of the thorax a Pericardial Cavity: membrane around the heart b Pleural Cavity: The membrane around the lungs Membrane Linings a Visceral pericardium: The wall of the pericardial cavity that is touching the heart b Parietal pericardium: The wall of the pericardial cavity that goes to the outside c Visceral Pleura: The wall of the Pleura that touches the lungs d Parietal Pleura: The wall that touches the rest of the cavity B Organizational Scheme: 1 The cell is the smallest functional unit in the body 2 There are 50 trillion cells in the body 3 There are more that 200 different types of cells 4 Differentiation: each type of cell is specialized to carry out a certain function so each cell can survive 5 Cells are organized into a hierarchy so the cell can function as effectively as possible


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