From Planning to Stalemate
From Planning to Stalemate HIST 3121
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3121 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Michael Kozakowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see World at War 1914-1945 in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Cydney Tinsley World at War Day 3: Key Dates, French and German Planning, and Stalemates Key Dates, French and German Planning, and Stalemates Key Questions: 1. What are the origins of WWI? 2. Why did WWI become an extended stalemate? 3. What was the plan for winning and where did it go wrong? 4. Why was there a stalemate on the Western Front? 5. How did the character of war change, (compared to previous wars)? 6. What was different about the Eastern Front and what were the implications? 7. How did the US get involved? Key Dates of the July Crisis: 1. June 28 , 1914: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. 2. July 23 , 1914: Austria-Hungary sent it’s ultimatum to Serbia. th th 3. July 24 /25 , 1914: Russia/Serbia mobilizes; Serbia only partially accepts the ultimatum. 4. July 28 , 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia; various parties mobilizth 5. July 30 , 1914: Russia mobilizes against Germany. 6. August 2 , 1914: Germany attacks Luxemburg. 7. August 3 , 1914: Germany declares war on France. th 8. August 4 , 1914: Germany declares war on Belgium; Britain declares war on Germany. French/German Planning for War 1. Schlieffen Plan: Germany knows that the German-French border is fortified, so they decided to go through Belgium and attack from behind. 2. French Plan: Send their full forces and concentrate them all on the German- French border. 3. The French have an advantage as they own most of the railway systems. 4. Germany also is not completely ignoring their Russian border; while most of their forces are off fighting the French, a few stayed behind and defended the border alongside Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Stalemate 1. During the Battle of the Marne, Germany and France continuously tried to outflank each other. This began entrenchment throughout the German, French, and Belgian borders, leading to a stalemate on the Western Front. 2. Germany saw that it would be hard to win the stalemate and decides to focus more on defense, particularly alongside the Russian border. Cydney Tinsley World at War Day 3: Key Dates, French and German Planning, and Stalemates 3. France, on the other hand, decided to increase offence and began slowly moving with artillery fire. 4. During this stalemate, the first use of chlorine gas occurred, although for multiple reasons it wasn’t effective. 5. The British realized that there would need to be a large army to end a stalemate, and Lord Kitchener of Britain calls in a Conscription Army (draft) of civilians. 6. The war becomes more of a ‘who can outlast the other’ thing than a ‘let’s end this quickly’. This caused a large, drawn out conflict that everyone knew was going to take a long time. Larger armies were brought in and civilians began to help in any way they could, leading to the first civilian-targeted attacks. Battle of Verdun 1.Verdun was a French territory targeted by the Germans. Germany knew that Verdun was extremely important to the French and knew that the French would waste their time defending this sentimental city. However, equal loss of troops caused the Germans to back out. Battle of Somme 1.July-August of 1916. 2.Between France and Germany. 3.First use of tanks. 4.Seen as a big waste. One million people died in only 6 miles of territory, which no brake on the front.
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