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chapter 1 - notes

by: Valentina Mannella

chapter 1 - notes PSY 250

Valentina Mannella
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Notes taken in class from lecture
Cognitive Psychology
Elyse Hurtado
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valentina Mannella on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 250 at University of Miami taught by Elyse Hurtado in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
Cognitive Psychology 1 Chapter 1: Intro to cognitive psychology Chapter 1: Intro to cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology – the study of our mental processing abilities. The study of how we think, remember, decide and perceive. *Configuration of a penny – information is lost and forgotten in our system. 80% of college students couldn’t figure out which one was the correct penny. *Unconsciously, we fill in information, we fill in the blanks, and we elaborate because we want things to make sense. (Our perceptual system fills in the blanks) * We also recognize pattern – we organize information so we can easily identify patterns. Our cognitive system identifies things as patterns (we see the whole) Gestalt Psychology – pattern recognition  Figure-ground: image of tree and lion + ape Cognitive Psychology development  The study of how we think –  Mind/body problem: the question of how our mental experience is related or caused by the physical operations of substances in the brain. o Every thought you have, every motion and experience – all it is are chemicals and electro-chemical neurons firing in your brain. They are concrete substances that are activating in your brain and it leads to the experience that we have. o This connection was discovered by the early philosophers/scientist (Aristotle)  He pondered where knowledge comes from and where it ponders in the mind.  He wrote 12 books of metaphysics – where he considered things like logic and language.  He considered the language of soul  Explained the nature of human sensations – sensations can deceive us, our memory can be faulty.  He talked about innate knowledge – he believed you have to have knowledge in order to get knowledge.  Trepanning: drill holes into people’s skulls – to let out evil spirits. o A very common practice – used as medical treatment for mental disorders, epilepsy o Not different from lobotomy’s.  Phrenology (1700s) – idea that different areas of the brain have different functions. o Areas like spirituality, hope, tune, time, etc.  Discipline of psychology emerged in the 1800s  Behaviourism – dominated 1900s – learning theory. o The father of behaviourism was B.F Skinner o Other famous behaviourist were Pavlov, Watson (Classical Conditioning) o Operant VS Classical conditioning – operant uses punishments and rewards. Classical conditioning is pairing two stimuli. o *Behaviourist insisted that behaviour has to be observable – cognition is not. So, they discounted cognition.  It wasn’t until the 1950s where the cognitive revolution happened. (Shift from Behaviour to Cognitive) o Interest for memory, language. o New developments in the methodology of research – new techniques to get at what was going on behind the scenes. o As technology improved we were able to look inside the brain with neuroscience (MRI’s) o Cognitive neuroscience we could study the relationship between the neuron activity and the cognitive function. o Neuron doctrine  published in 1905.  The publication that specified that the brain is made up of individual units that contain special features  This is when we identified what was taking place neurologically. o The first MRI was done in 1977: Static picture of what was going on  Now we have a fMRI which allows people to perform activities while they are in the MRI and we can see the change while they are performing activities. We can see not only the picture but the function. Cognitive Psychology 3 Chapter 1: Intro to cognitive psychology


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