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gen psych modules

by: Katy sanchez

gen psych modules SCWR 120

Katy sanchez
Loyola Marymount University

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Storytelling for the Screen
Prof Frederick Ayeroff
Class Notes
Psychology, GenPsych
25 ?




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy sanchez on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCWR 120 at Loyola Marymount University taught by Prof Frederick Ayeroff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Storytelling for the Screen in SCWR at Loyola Marymount University.

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Date Created: 08/30/16
Learning Unit  Operant conditioning o Positive and negative reinforcement or punishment o Negative reinforcement – takes something away that increases likelihood of the response o Positive reinforcement – adds something that increases likelihood of the response o Positive punishment - adds something that will decrease behavior o Negative punishment – behavior decreases because a positive stimulus is removed  Shaping  Side effects of punishment o Increased aggression, passive aggressiveness, avoidance behavior, modeling, temporary suppression, learned helplessness o Modeling  demonstrating & person is watching then starts doing it o Priming  provide information that helps you remember something o Shaping  reinforcement for things that are closer and closer to the desired behavior o Learned helplessness – nothing you can do to alleviate the situation  Schedules of reinforcement o Continuous – 1 to 1 ratio, reward everytime o Partial: ratio – every ? time you get a prize  Variable - ? to ? time maybe prize maybe not o partial: interval  fixed: announced examination  : pop quiz  Acquisition and later performance of behaviors demonstrated by others o Must bay attention, retention, production, motivation Intelligence Unit  Intelligence tests: series of questions and other exercises which attempt to assess people’s mental abilities in a way that generates a numerical score, so that one person can be compared to another  Intelligence: “whatever intelligence tests measure”  General Intelligence (g)  Charles Spearman performed a factor analysis of different skills and found that people who did well in one area also did well in another. o These people had a high ‘g’ o Factor analysis – a statistical technique that determines how different variables relate to each other  Whether they form clusters that tend to vary together  Thurstone’s seven cluster of Abilities o Verbal comprehension o Inductive reasoning o Word fluency o Spatial ability o Memory o Perceptual speed o Numerical ability  People who were strong in one cluster tended to be strong in other clusters  Savant syndrome – having isolated ‘islands’ of high ability amidst a sea of below average cognitive and social functioning o Howard Gardner’s Multiple intelligences – different people have intelligence/ability in different areas o Research and factor analysis suggests that there may be a correlation among these intelligences  8 intelligences – logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist, linguistic  Intelligence and Success – Success in life is impossible to define – wealth tends to be related to intelligence scores as well as – daily effort/ practice, social support and connections, hard work and energetic persistence  Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy – success in life is related to three types of ability o Practical intelligence – expertise and talent that help to complete the tasks and manage the complex challenges of everyday life o Analytical intelligence – solving a well-defined problem with a single answer o Creative intelligence – generating new ideas to help adapt to novel situations o 5 creativity components  Creative environment: having support, feedback, encouragement, and time and space to think  Venturesome personality: tending to seek out new experiences despite risk, ambiguity, and obstacles  Intrinsic motivation: enjoying the pursuit of interests and challenge, without needing external direction or rewards  Expertise: possessing a well-developed base of knowledge  Imaginative thinking: having the ability to see new perspectives, combinations, and connections  Creativity – the ability to produce ideas that are novel and valuable – creative intelligence involves using those ideas to adapt to novel situations o Convergent thinking – left-brain activity involving zeroing in on a single correct answer o Divergent thinking – the ability to generate new ideas, new actions, and multiple options and answers (creativity uses this one)  Four strategies to boost creativity o Pursue an interest until you develop expertise o Allow time for incubation with your attention away from projects, during which unconscious connections can form o Allow time for mental wandering and aimless daydreaming with no distractions o Improve mental flexibility by experiencing other cultures and ways of thinking  Social and emotional intelligence o Social – refers to the ability to understand and navigate social situations o Emotional – involves processing and managing the emotional component of those social situations, including one’s own emotions  Components of emotional intelligence o Perceiving emotions – recognizing emotions in facial expressions, stories, and even in music o Understanding emotions – being able to see blended emotions, and to predict emotional states and changes in self and others o Managing emotions – modulating and expressing emotions in various situations o Using emotions – using emotions as fuel and motivation for creative, adaptive thinking  Benefits: people with high emotional intelligence have the ability to delay gratification  Level of emotional intelligence correlates with success in career and other social situations  Intelligence and Brain Anatomy o Overall brain size, region size (parietal lobe), high brain activity in frontal and parietal lobe, extra gray matter, extra white matter – all correlate to genius  Intelligence and Processing Speed o Verbal and general intelligence test scores correlate with the – speed of retrieving info from memory, speed of receiving and processing sensory and perceptual information _____________________________________________________________________________________ Thinking  Cognition refers to mental activities and processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information o Includes reasoning, judgment, and assembling new info into knowledge o Supports attention, emotion, consciousness, perception, learning, memory, language, mental health, and social interaction  Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects – events, states, ideas, people o Prototypes: mental images of the best example of a concept o Fail us when examples stretch our definitions, when the boundary between concepts is fuzzy, when examples contradict our prototypes  Problem solving – strategies for arriving t solutions include – trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, insight o Algorithms – step by step strategy to solve a problem o Heuristics – a short cut, step saving thinking strategy which generates a quick solution but could result in an error o Insight – refers to a sudden realization, a leap forward in thinking, that leads to a solution o Obstacles: confirmation bias, fixation/mental set, heuristics  Confirmation bias: tendency to search for information which confirms our current theory, disregarding contradictory evidence  Mental set: Developmental Psychology  Describe, explain, predict, and moderate behavior across the life span  Research issues: how do they actually do their work / what do they focus on o Is the developmental a function of nature and nurture  Heredity v environment o Is it a continuous process that unfolds or are there stages o Cross sectional and longitudinal  Cross-sect: performance of people of different age groups is compared  Longitudinal: performance of one group of people is assessed repeatedly over time  Every area of psych can be looked at from this perspective  Critical period – is there a period when an individual is particularly sensitive to certain environmental experiences  Physical development begins at conception  Physical maturity sets limits on psychological ability – o visual system not fully functional /language not functional until later  Prenatal environment – have lifetime influence on health and intellectual attributes o Teratogen – any agent that causes a birth defect o Fetal alcohol syndrome – cluster of defects occurring in infants  Piaget’s theory of cog development o Believed that children are active thinkers o Schemas  Assimilation – taking new info or new experience and fitting it into a schema you already have  Accommodation - existing schemas are changed or new schemas are created in order to fit new information o Primary method was to ask children to solve problesm and question them about the reasoning behind solution  Children thought differently than adults o Stages :  Problems with piaget’s theory  Social development- the changing nature of relationships with others over the life span o Individuals develop socially but how do they develop o What factors drive social development o Erikson’s theory  Biological in belief that there are innate drives to develop social relationships that these promote survival (Darwinism)  Divided life span into 8 psychosocial stages – each associated with a different drive and problem/crisis to resolve  Stage 1 – trust v mistrust  Infants must rely on others, consisted /dependable caregiving and meeting infant needs  Infants who are not well cared for will develop mistrust  Stage 2  Stage 3  Stage 4  Stage 5  Stage 6  Stage 7  Stage 8  Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development o Pre-conventional o Conventional o Post-conventional  Stage 1  Stage 2  Stage 3  Stage 4 o Issues:  Freudian Theory: psychodynamic development o Defense mechanism – we have too many things that would cause us anxiety  An ego defense mechanism acts like a shield  Id: the I want it now principle  Super ego: more of a reality and conscious – do things that are fair, and that won’t get you into trouble  Ego: negotiates the two drives/structures – tries to find a way to satisfy both of them  Defense mechanism protects the ego from reality so it doesn’t become overwhelmed (leads to psychosis)  Repression, rationalization, denial, etc.  Regression 0 reacting to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated  Reaction formation 0 switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites  Projection – disguising one’s own threatening impulses by attributing them to others  Rationalization – offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real more threatening unconscious reasons for ones actions  Displacement shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person  Denial Refusing to believe painful memories o Neo-Freudian perspectives  Archetype – mental images of universal traits shared by all humans o Theory of development  Oral (birth to 1)  The mouth is a primary focus of pleasure  Anal (1 to 3)  The anus is primary pleasure  Phallic (3 to 6)  genitals are primary focus of pleasurable sensation  Latency (7 to 11)  Genital (adolescence)  Humanistic perspective o Inherent goodness of people o Self-awareness and free will o Maslow – hierarchy of needs/ self-actualization o Rogers – person centered perspective  Each person is asking who am I and can I accept myself for who I am  Genuineness – open with feelings, transparent and self- disclosing  Empathy – sharing and mirroring others feelings relaxing and fully expressing ones true self  Acceptance – offering unconditional positive regard  Trait Perspective o Eysenck o The five factor theory  Conscientiousness  Organized – disorganized  Careful – careless  Self-disciplined – weak willed  Agreeableness  Softhearted – ruthless  Trusting suspicious  Helpful uncooperative  Neuroticism  Worried calm  Insecure secure   Openness to experience  Extraversion  Self-report inventories o Psychological tests in which a persons responses to standard questions are compared to established norms  Social Cog o Behavior influenced by interaction between people o Self-efficacy – the degree to which beliefs about our capabilities and effectiveness meet the demands of specific situations o Learned helplessness – hopeless and passive resignation; an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events  Personality theories: o What is your enduring set of characteristics/traits o General style of interacting with the world o is personality innate or is it learned? – nature nurture question o are you an introvert because of genetic makeup or because of the environment you were raised in o is personality conscious or unconscious  are you aware of your personality style  or as Freud suggests – is it unconscious and you have no clue o is personality influences by internal or external factors?  Personality development o Origin of personality characteristics -- Genetic factors – prenatal factors, childhood experiences, influence of culture, social class, race, religion, etc. o Personality traits of an individual – development of stable personality characteristics involving emotional reactions, attitudes, motives, interests, beliefs, fears, desires o Behavior in which personality variables are reflected – responses to relevant internal and external stimulation consisting of needs, fantasies, thoughts, other people, situations, challenges, problems, etc.  Personality Measurement o Personality assessment by means of a test – stimuli (test items) relevant to a given trait) o Response to test items on the basis of existing personality traits – activation of relevant personality characteristics – emotional reactions, attitudes, motives, interests, beliefs, fears, desires o Specification of individual’s position along a particular trait dimension – overall test score that indicates where each person falls on this dimension  Personality recap o Individual characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling  _____________________________________________________________________________________ Psychological Disorders:  Patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that are deviant, distressful and dysfunctional o Disorder – refers to a state of mental/behavior ill health o Patterns – refers to finding a collection of symptoms that tend to go together and not just seeing a single symptom o For there to be distress and dysfunction – symptoms must be sufficiently severe to interfere with one’s daily life and well being o Deviant means differing from the norm  By a culture when it is different from what would be expected in that culture o Disorder may also be a deviation from a typical developmental pathway  Cultural influences o Culture bound syndroms – are disorders which only seem to exist within certain cultures; they demonstrate how culture can play a role in both causing and defining a disorder  Bulimia Nervosa, Running Amok, Hikikomori  Psychological Disorders o Cultural influences, deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions, can change over time  Psychopathology: the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders  Key perspective : medical model o Psychological disorder that have physical disorders that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases cured, often through hospital treatment  Biopsychosocial approach o Classifying Psychological Disorders  Purpose: describe a disorder, predict its course, imply appropriate treatment, stimulate research into causes  Main tool of diagnostic classification: DSM-5  Understanding the nature of psychological disorders o Diagnosis is to make decisions about treating the problem  Labels o Can cause bias perceptions and change reality o Labels can be arbitrary and betray value judgments o Serve as self-fulfilling prophecies o Stigma  Stigma and stereotypes o Many people think a diagnostic label means being seen as tainted, weak and weird  Many psychologists believe we should use extreme caution in diagnosing and labeling  Comorbidity- the fact that people diagnosed with one psychological disorder are often diagnosed with another Psychotherapy  Psychotherapy is a set of methods that are designed to improve psychological functioning or promote adjustment to life o Engage people in a process of change o Half of clients do not want to be in therapy o Maladaptive behaviors o Conflict o Interpersonal relationship problems o Biomedical  Goal for therapy: change the way you think, help gain insight, help develop a new set of behavioral concepts o Change maladaptive behavior o Change distorted thoughts, or problematic emotions o Focusing on inner conflicts o Interpersonal relationships o General difficulties in life  Large number of life stressors o Biomedical difficulties  Has a genetic predisposition that leads to abnormalities in the levels of neurotransmitters that then leads to neural or emotional behavioral  Person-centered therapy, cognitive, psychoanalytic, behavioral o Role the therapist plays will look different in different models o Techniques will differ depending on the approach o Role of the unconscious differs from therapy to therapy o Insight importance differs o Differs in terms of their techniques  Major types o Person-centered/ regarian o Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic o Behavioral o Cognitive o Cognitive +behavioral o Biological  psychotropic o eclectic  Clinical psychologists, psychiatrists (not all, most just prescribe drugs), social workers (licensed, clinical social workers, counseling psychologists, psychiatric nurses,  People in treatment do better than those not o Each therapy is as effective as the others  Some types of therapy work better for specific problems o Cognitive behavioral – fear and anxiety o Humanistic best for self esteem o Psychodynamic best for work/school achievement  Some therapists are better than others o Warm, understanding, motivated  Nonspecific factors in therapy effectiveness o Unrelated to specific principles but critical to outcome  Support – acceptance, empathy, encouragement, guidance  Hope – sense of faith in the therapy process  Placebo effect – improvement from belief rather than actual effect  Psychodynamic therapy – unconscious motives o Free association, dream analysis, mistakes o Resistance, transference, insight o Best therapy for achievement problems  Humanistic – focus on inner potential of client  Carl rogers clinet centered therapy o Empathy, unconditional  Cognitive therapy – maladaptive thinking causes mental problems o Albert ellis- rational emotive therapy (abc) o Aaron beecks cognitive therapy for depression  Behavior therapy – observable stimulus response patterns o Thoughts are private behaviors o Phobias o Systematic desensitization, flooding, aversion o Therapist is very directive  Group therapy o Each therapy has own type of group therapy o Family and couple therapy o Family systems perspective Stress and health unit  Psychological states cause physical illness o Stress – any circumstance that may be real or perceived and threatens one’s well being  Prolonged stress – together with unhealthy behaviors can increase our risk for today’s four leading diseases o Stress can be adaptive – in a fearful stress causing situation we can run away and save our life o Maladaptive – if it prolongs (chronic stress) it increases risk of illness and health problems  Stimulus 0 something happens  At other times it is a response (sweating while taking a test)  Phase 3 is where your immune system breaks down


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