Psych 3313 Behavioral Neuroscience Notes Week 1
Psych 3313 Behavioral Neuroscience Notes Week 1 PSYCH 3313
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Kaiser on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3313 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Supe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Psych 3313 Behavioral Neuroscience Notes Week 1 Qualities of a Research Method technique Structure / Function Static / Dynamic - Invasiveness - does it enter your body? Risk and ethical concerns Scale Speed Cost and Accessibility Try and answer all of these questions for the various research methods we discuss Structure and Function: How is it built? How is it connected? What does it look like? How does it work? What does it do? Why is it important? It is really hard to study a live brain Hands are pretty easy to observe and look at. You can learn functional things pretty easily but our brain is very protected Neuro Techniques Slide There is no method that can answer every question - so figure out which method to use to answer the best you can Very organized info Highly Invasive Methods More common in animal population than human participants Usually uses a stereotaxic device. Use it as landmarks to guide where we want to go. Used on humans when they have brain surgery, typically researches will record when they do brain surgery just to do it. Ablation: Removing brain tissue Pulling it out and seeing what happens with the patient o Sometimes it will have a minor effect and others it can be a big problem Lesion Not removing but damaging the tissue Can be accidental or intentional o Phineas Gage Biochemical/neurotoxic Cannulation Putting a specialized tube into the brain o You can put something into a very small area of the brain - infusion Could be a drug or something like that o Taking a small sample of part of the brain - microdialysis These are for small scale microscopic approach You need to fix and make the samples solid so that you can study them They also need to be stained in order to see different things within the slices - there are many different stains Types of microscopes Light Fluorescent Confocal Electron - as zoomed in as possible Staining and imaging neurons Golgi Silver Stain - Random single cells, structural features Myelin Stains - axon/fiber tracts, connections Nissl Stains - cell bodies/nuclei, layers o There are more but these are the main focus Golgi Stain Discovered by Camillo Golgi Initially named the black reaction He noticed the SOME were filled completely - you could see the whole thing in new amazing detail SOME is important because it only stains about 5% of neurons randomly o We don’t know why It stains some and not others we just go with it Nissl Stain Focus on the cell body part of the neuron - endoplasmic reticulum Shows where the nucleus is Very useful for how the cells are distributed and layered structures We can see what areas have a lot of cell bodies and what areas do not have as many the "grey matter" Myelin Stains Stains the "white matter" of the fatty myelin sheath The travel points, darkly stains axons and fiber tracts Shows where points of communication are at Electrical Activity in the Brain Patch Clamp Glass micropipettes used Studying one part of a cell not the whole thing - single or multiple ion channels on a neural membrane VERY SMALL SCALE Single Unit --> Multi-Unit --> Local Field Potentials --> electroencephalogram --> Event-related Potentials Single cell/Multi-Unit recordings Invasive - fine wire electrodes implanted Used to correlated physiology Very fast timing, you can hear the change in electricity in the brain Local Field Potentials Recording from a population Invasive - fine wire electrodes You can look at different sections and see how they are the same Detects oscillatory patterns - Recording outside the brain Hanz Berger was the first one to say that electrical patterns were connected and important o He noticed that there were clear patterns and that they changed based on consciousness EEG Measure the summed total of graded potentials - not action potentials - the flow of ions into and out of neurons! Changes as your state of consciousness changes As long as we are alive we will have these patterns of electrical activity Synchronized and Desynchronized Neuronal Activity Neurons start to connect and act in synchronization with each other over time - we can see this through EEG's Desynchronous - during class neurons acting individually Synchronous - during deep sleep Chart of different EEG rhythms COPY DOWN CHARTS When would you use an EEG Whenever you have an electrical disorder - epilepsy or seizures Sleep/waking/consciousness Cognitive processing or sensory behavior tasks Advantages: Fast and precise timing Safe, non-invasive Low costs Portable Disadvantages: Poor signal locations - know when but not where Not effective for deep structures (sub-cortical) Event-Related Potentials Repeated EEG processing Kind of averages EEG signals Weird thing - positive deflection goes down and negative goes up Electrical Stimulation & Behavior Can affect neural firing (action potentials) o electroconvulsive therapy - Used to treat depression o High risk - can cause seizures and memory loss Deep brain stimulation o Very invasive and high risk Magnetoencephalography Produces a magnetic field and can determine magnetic influences Can detect localization unlike EEG's Advantages: Measures function High precision spatial resolution and temporal resolution Non-invasive Disadvantages: Super expensive SQUID sensor is very large Repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil over skill applies strong and quickly changing magnetic fields - can temporarily enhance
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