History 1377 LearnSmart Notes Chapter 2
History 1377 LearnSmart Notes Chapter 2 Hist 1377
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Brucker on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1377 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Mathew Clavin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see The U.S. to 1877 in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
LearnSmart Notes Chapter 2 New World English Colonies 38 out of 150 men who sailed from England in late 1606 to found the Jamestown colony survived long enough to greet the relief ships that arrived in 1608. Maryland colony: Promoted religious tolerance because they could not adequately populate the colony with only English Catholics Protestants outnumbered Catholics. George Calvert’s plans for the Maryland colony: He wanted to establish a haven for English Catholics. He wanted to create a profitable real estate venture. Massachusetts Bay Company: The company’s founders were motivated by both economic and spiritual interests. The organizers acquired from Charles I a charter to create the company and establish a c colony. The company was founded by Puritan merchants during a time when the English king was increasingly hostile toward Puritans. Georgia was unique among English colonies in North America because: It was neither solely a business venture nor a religious refuge There was a combination of military and philanthropic motives behind its establishment Georgia’s population included: A relatively small number of debtors and/or released prisoners Hundreds of poor English and Scottish tradesmen and artisans A small group of Jews, as well as religious refugees from Germany and Switzerland A smaller proportion of English settlers than any other American colony Excluded from Georgia by James Oglethorpe and trustees: Catholics, for fear that they might align with the Spanish Africans, free or slave, whose presence might spark revolts Restorationera colonies established during the quartercentury reign of Charles II: Carolina New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Newcomers to the region generally preferred to settle in South Carolina instead of Georgia because of it’s: Ban on slavery Political structure under Oglethorpe and the trustees Restrictions on the size of individual property holdings th th Carolina colony in the 17 18 centuries: The king divided the region into two colonies, North and South Carolina, in 1729. An influx of Barbadians and a flourishing rice trade heralded the rise of slavery in southern Carolina. Class, political, and economic differences created sharp divisions between northern and southern Carolina. Northern Carolina (opposed to the southern portion of the colony): Had virtually no aristocracy Had backwoods farmers Had small farms Incentives to colonization offered by the Carolina proprietors: A measure of political freedom, with a representative assembly Religious freedom for all Christians 17 century New York: The colony included not only Dutch and English, but also Germans, French, Scandinavians, and Africans. Like New York today, the colony governed by James, the duke of York, was and exceedingly diverse one. English landlords, Dutch patrons, fur traders, and the duke’s political appointees vied for power. Both the English and Dutch had laid claim to the area that is now presentday New York, but the English won in the end. New York early government: Political power was highly divided and highly unequal in the territory. James made no provision for representative assemblies. Powers were delegated to a governor and a council. Factors of the Virginian Territorial Expansion: Establishment of the “headright system” by which the Virginia Company granted land to settlers The profitability of tobacco (a highly landintensive crop) Effective suppression of the local Native Americans New settlers could receive headrights from the Virginia Company by paying for the passage of another settler. The 1609 charter, granted by James I, gave the Virginia Company greater land and power over the colony. Brought to Virginia in 1619: Africans English women Middle Grounds: Frontier areas in which settlers and Indians vied for control, with neither side able to establish clear dominance. Located along the western borders of English settlements in 17 century America How the English Troops Were Jerks Pocahontas After an initial period of peaceful relations, tensions arose between white settlers and Native Americans in New England because of the colonists’ increasing demand for more land (jerks). Chief Powhatan vs. the English Forces (chronologically): 1. Sir Thomas Dale led relentless assaults against Chief Powhatan’s people. 2. English forces capture Chief Powhatan’s Daughter Pocahontas, and Chief Powhatan refuses to pay ransom. 3. Pocahontas converts to Christianity. 4. Chief Powhatan ceases his attacks. 5. Chief Powhatan’s brother launches a surprise attack on the English. The Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution: Occurred in 1688, when William and Mary became joint sovereigns of England in a bloodless coup. As a result of the Glorious Revolution, the colonies: Successfully thwarted the plan for colonial unification from above Reestablished their representative assemblies Massachusetts/New England after the Glorious Revolution: Property ownership, rather than church membership, became the basis for voting and holding office in Massachusetts. The Dominion of New England was abolished, and separate colonial governments were restored. Governor Andros was arrested and imprisoned. Puritans Puritan emigration from England: The Puritans emigrated in small groups. The Puritan Separatists’ quiet departure from England was illegal at the time. The Puritans first relocated to Holland before settling in North America. Puritan Separatists from England chose to leave their new home in Holland because: Their children began to drift away from their church They could only obtain jobs that paid poorly Massachusetts Puritans: Favored thrift and hard work Regarded material success as evidence of divine favor Were pious and serious The Mayflower Compact was drawn up aboard the Pilgrims’ ship. Cavaliers: Supporters of the King during the English Civil War. Roundheads: Supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. Bacon’s Rebellion Events of Bacon’s Rebellion: Bacon’s troops drove the governor into exile and burned much of the city. Bacon led his troops to Jamestown to fight the governor. Bacon’s Rebellion exacerbated clashes between: Lower classes vs. the aristocracy Whites vs. Indians Tidewater vs. backcountry Landless vs. landowning Major difference between tidewater and backcountry land owners: Views on westward expansion (main point of contention) Geographic locale Policy toward natives Bacon’s Rebellion spurred the rise of slavery in Virginia by prompting landed elites to import more slaves because they feared growth among white lower classes. Spain During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the area between the Carolinas and Florida: Was the site of tensions between Spain, and France and England Was the site where the Spaniards tried to build forts France posed the greatest threat to Spanish dominance in western North America during the late 1600s 1700s. Spanish colonies in the 1600s 1700s: Texas Florida California New Mexico Arizona During most of the Spanish colonial era, much of the region that is now Arizona was governed from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Spanish colonial population in North America during the 1600s1700s: Religious minorities Independent ranchers Catholic missionaries Spanish soldiers th Post 17 century Florida: Constant fighting in the region had driven most Spanish settlers out of Florida Spaniards became reliant on natives and Africans due to their small numbers The English ultimately prevailed and acquired Florida for England From the Spanish colony in Florida, Spanish traders and missionaries began moving northward into Georgia. The Caribbean Colonies 17 century agricultural economy in the Caribbean colonies: Before focusing on sugarcane, English settlers experimented with tobacco and cotton. Sugarcane could be used to produce both sugar and rum (another valuable commodity). The laborintensive nature of sugar helped influence the rise of slavery in the Caribbean. The rise of slavery in the Caribbean: English planters initially brought indentured servants from England. English planters became increasingly dependent on slave labor. With the importation of African slaves, the African workforce soon greatly outnumbered the English planters. Most slaves in the English colonies of North America during the 17 century came from the Caribbean islands rather than directly from Africa. African in the Caribbean colonies of the 1600s typically: Started families Maintained African social traditions Did not adopt Christianity Established patterns of resistance Major Caribbean exports of the 17 century: Sugar Slaves Rum Just For Funzies Virginia Company Lyrics – Disney’s Pocahontas: ♫ In sixteen hundred seven We sail the open sea For glory, God, and gold And the Virginia Company For the New World is like heaven And we'll all be rich and free Or so we have been told By the Virginia Company So we have been told by the Virginia Company For glory, God and gold And the Virginia Company On the beaches of Virginie There's diamonds like debris There's silver rivers flow And gold you pick right off the trees With a nugget for my Winnie And another one for me And all the rest'll go To The Virginia Company It's glory, God and gold And the Virginia Company ♫ Here’s the video link if you’re like me and you want to sing along! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ne2tzfxQ6T4 Material taken from The Unfinished Nation, 7 edition by Alan Brinkley
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