Week 2 Lecture notes.
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Cook on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Brysch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
FORMAL REGIONS: uniform and distinguished by at least one shared cultural or physical characteristic. Can be measured. Ex: locating the area of town where there is an abundance of wealthy people. FUNCTIONAL REGION: trait domain at a central point. Defined by a shared economic, political, or social purpose. They overlap. Ex: TV, Radio area, bus hub, Airlines, School District PERCEPTUAL REGION: derived from people’s sense of identity and attachment to an area. Borders are variable. Have perceptions whether you’ve been there or not. Historical interactions and physical and cultural processes created areas of greater interaction and connection. DEGREE OF CONTACT DEPENDS ON: DISTANCE: probability of interaction declines with distance CONNECTIVITY: people in two places are tied together with cultural processes or physical features. ACCESABILTY: what must be traveled between two places HEARTH: where something originated and spread. Types of Diffusion 1) RELOCATION: physical movement from one place to another, Ex. Migration and Religion. 2) EXPANSION (SPATIAL DIFFUSION): Contagious is spread randomly from place of origin to nearby places. Hierarchal spread from most important places to most important places like fashion industry in New York and Paris. Barriers to diffusion: PHYSICAL: mountain ranges POLITICAL: closed borders CULTURE: allows or prohibits birth control, alcohol, and found restrictions. ECONOMICS: LDC or MDC GEOGRAPHICAL TOOLS AND SPATIAL GRAPHICS FEILDWORK Geographers go in the field and observe how people, place, environment, and space vary across the world. - Apply geographic questions - Make and analyze observations - Analyze different phenomena - Map change over time PHYSICAL LANDSCAPES: seeing how it has been shaped over time CULTURAL LANDSCAPES: visible imprint of human activity. Study landscapes to understand people. SEQUENT OCCUPANCE: shows layers of history in the cultural landscape. The modern landscape is influenced because things are always changing. CARTOGRAPHY: map making, construction of maps. Map making was not just a European phenomenon not a coincidence that Europe was in the middle (the map makers from Europe believed Europe was the center of the world) -Maps are a 2D representation of a 3D world on a map Earth loses shape and distance and are not entirely accurate. Map Projections Peter’s Projection: equal area, not quite proportional Interrupted Projection: shows sizes and shapes. A lot of distortion, less seas (not navigator friendly) Robinson’s Projection: decent size and shape, bit of distortion Mercator Projection: accurate land areas, includes equator, distorts size and shape near the poles. - Called “evil” or “super evil” because it was taught in schools even though it is not entirely accurate. Issues with accuracy at the North and South poles. Globular Projection: accurate. Winkle Trepel Projection: standard for national geographic - Advantages: minimizes distortion, slightly curved latitude lines for increased accuracy. - Disadvantages: now the distortion lies within the east/west/polar areas on the map. Reference Map: convey absolute location (latitude/longitude) - Ex. Road maps. You can tell where things are in reference to each other. Thematic Map: shows relative location. Used to tell story of data usually by location, distribution, or movement Ex. % of people retired in a country COMPONENTS OF MAP READING Scale - Explains relationship between distance on maps and on earth. Expressed geographically, ratio/fraction, or verbally Direction - Orientation, compass rose, think where you live, normally North is top of the map, East is to the right but that is not always the case. Legends and Symbols - shows what the different colorations mean. Ex capital points, larger dots on big cities. ACCURACY: maps are only as accurate as the data that goes into it. - The cartographer generalizes and standardize data. - Interpretation and analysis. - Demographics play a role. Compare the right thing to be accurate. Ex; verison vs AT&T MAP BLUNDERS: misplacing states; the news and some airlines do it. REMOTE SENSING: Acquiring information at a distance. Study environments and human phenomenon at multiple scales. LANSAT program longest running satellite imagining of the earth. HUMAN GEOGRAPHER: analyze changes in places over time, migration flows and political maneuvers. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS: John Snow was one of the fathers of modern epidemiology. Cholera outbreak in London. Looked at water pumps, location of outbreaks, and determined that it was the source - This system lets us visualize, question, analyze, and interpret data to understand relationships, patterns, and trends. - GEO referenced data: direct and indirect (streets and zip code) - Can combine GIS and remote sensing (faster data) - Overlapping satellite photos with GIS special and attribute data. Shows up in layers. LATITUDE: runs east to west but locates north to south. LONGITUDE(Meridians): runs north to south but locates east to west. GLOBAL POSITIONIG SYSTEMS Uses a constellation of artificial satellites. Ex. Radio signals and receivers to determine latitude and longitude. Locate things or navigate between places on earth. *Remapping Alaska; $41 million, dollar projects. 57% mapped. Criticisms of new technology like hardware, software. Reinforces a power divide. Promotes a strong and detached the western view of the world. MENTAL MAPS The brains ability to imagine activity spatially varies. Innate senses vs. people who are not so lucky. Scale goes from local to global.
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