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GEOS 1024 - 1, 2, & 3

by: Karly Vittetoe

GEOS 1024 - 1, 2, & 3 GEOS 1024

Karly Vittetoe
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Literacy Terms to Know Attitudes Risk Analysis Other Terms
Resources Geology
Luca Fedele
Class Notes
Literacy, terms, attitudes, Risk, Analyis
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karly Vittetoe on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Luca Fedele in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Resources Geology in Geoscience at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 08/30/16
Luca Fedele 5053 Derring Hall Quizzes, Activities, Posters, Videos due @ 11pm Literacy  Being knowledgeable or educated in a particular field or fields  The ability to use language, numbers, images, and other means to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture  A set of skills that allow the individual to use technology to access knowledge  The ability to access complex contexts  A set of skills that allow an individual to develop the capacity for social awareness and critical reflections as a basis for personal and social change What kind of literacy? Environmental What is the environment? What are the wicked problems? How do we make informed decisions? Science Literacy (Scientific Method) Which kind of questions science can answer? What is the scientific method? How can we use scientific finding to generate policies? Information Literacy How can we understand if an information is correct? How can we understand if an information has a fallacy? TERMS TO KNOW: Environment - the surroundings or conditions (including living and nonliving components) in which any given organism exists Environmental Science - a field of research that is used to understand the natural world and our relationship to it (extremely interdisciplinary) Anthropocentric Worldview - a climate change that is a serious consequence of larger population, increasing, affluence, and more sophisticated technology Instrumental value - the value or worth of an object, organism, or species is based on its usefulness to humans Biocentric Worldview - a life-centered approach that views all life as having intrinsic value, regardless of its usefulness to humans Intrinsic value - the value or worth of an object, organism or species is based on its mere existence Ecocentric Worldview - a system-centered view that values intact ecosystems, not just the individual parts Scientific Method - Procedure scientists use to empirically test a hypothesis Hypothesis - a possible explanation for what we have observed that is based on some previous knowledge Testable - a possible explanation that generated predictions for which empirical evidence can be collected to verify or refute the hypothesis Prediction - a statement that identifies what is expected to happen in a given situation Falsifiable - an idea or a prediction that can be proved wrong by evidence Observational Study - research that gathers data in a real-world setting without intentionally manipulating any variable Experimental study - research that manipulates a variable in a test group and compares the response to that of a control group that was not exposed to the same variable Control group - the group in an experimental study that the test group's results are compared to; ideally, the control group will differ from the test group in only one way Test group - the group in an experimental study that is manipulated somehow such that it differs from the control group in only one way Independent variable - the variable in an experiment that the researcher manipulates or changes to see if it produces an effect Dependent variable - the variable in an experiment that is evaluated to see if it changes due to the conditions of the experiment Peer-reviewed - Researchers submit a report of their work to a group of outside experts who evaluate the study's design and results of the study to determine whether it is of high-enough quality to publish Theory - a widely accepted explanation of a natural phenomenon that has been extensively and rigorously tested scientifically Environmental sciences are all encompassing. We are more likely to see conflict in societal or political terms rather than with the natural environment. The interdisciplinary play between natural and applied sciences allows us to have a better understanding of our relationship with and ultimate dependence on the resources of the planet. “Wicked problems” are those challenges that come with multiple stakeholders and many different potential solutions. Attitudes: Technological fix- human ingenuity & science will be able to solve problems Evaluate and respond- move forward and based on the best available experience Gloom and doom- there is nothing we can do (give up) Rosy optimism- don’t worry; it will all work out Frontier- resources are here for us to use and we'll find others when needed  Risk analysis =the systematic study of uncertainties and risks that can occur in business, engineering, public policy, and many other areas.  Risk analysts seek to identify the risks faced by an institution or business unit, understand how and when they arise, and estimate the impact (financial or otherwise) of adverse outcomes.  Risk managers start with risk analysis, then seek to take actions that will mitigate or hedge these risks. Terms: Empirical Science - scientifically investigates the natural world through systematic observation and experimentation Applied science - findings are used to inform actions and to bring about positive change Environmental Literacy - the ability to understand environmental problems Trade offs - no on response is likely to present the ultimate solution Triple bottom line - considering the environmental, economic, social causes, and consequences Sustainable development - responding to limitations of the natural environment in a way that allows to meet present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to do the same Carrying capacity - the pollution size that an area can support indefinitely Renewable energy - energy that comes from an infinitely available or easily replenished source Social traps - decisions by individuals or groups that seem good at the time and produce a short-term benefit but hurt society in the long run Tragedy of the commons - the tendency of an individual to abuse commonly held resources in order to maximize their own personal interest Time delay - Actions that produce a benefit today set into motions events that cause problems later on Sliding reinforcer - actions that are beneficial at first but that change conditions such that their benefit declines over time Environmental ethic - the personal philosophy that influence how a person interacts with his or her natural environment and thus affect how one responds to environmental problems Atmosphere - the blanket of gases surrounding our planet that is made up of discernable layers Thermosphere - 4th layer, way up Mesosphere - 3rd layer, 56 miles up Stratosphere - 2nd layer, rises to 31 miles above the Earth's surface, less dense than troposphere Ozone layer - within the stratosphere, ozone contains 3 oxygen atoms, region where the most of the atmosphere's ozone is found Troposphere - 1st layer, extends 7 miles up, breathing air Montréal Protocol - international treaty that laid out plans to phase out ozone depleting chemicals like CFC Toxins - chemicals that cause direct damage upon exposure Persistent Chemicals - chemicals that don’t readily degrade over time Environmental Protection Agency - The federal agency responsible for setting policy and enforcing US environmental laws Risk Assessment - Weighing the risks and benefits of a particular action in order to decide how to proceed Precautionary Principle - A rule of thumb that calls for leaving a safety margin when the data about a particular substance's potential for harm are uncertain and where the substance may cause unexpected or unpredictable effects Information literacy - the ability to find and evaluate the quality of information Primary sources - sources that present new and original data or information, including novel scientific experiments or observations and first-hand accounts of any given event Peer review - A process where researchers submit a report of their work to outside experts who evaluate the study's design and results to determine if it is of a high-enough quality to publish Secondary sources - sources that present and interpret information from primary sources (newspapers, magazines, books, and internet) Tertiary sources - sources that present and interpret information from secondary sources Persistence - the length of time it takes a substance to break down in the environment Solubility - the ability of a substance to dissolve in a liquid or gas Bioaccumulation - the buildup of fate-soluble substances in the tissue of an organism over the course of its lifetime Biomagnification - the increased levels of fat-soluble substances in the tissue Epidemiologist - a scientist who studies the cause and patterns of disease in human population Toxicologists - scientists who study the specific properties of any given potential toxin In vivo study - research that studies the effects of an experimental treatment in intact organisms In vitro study - research that studies the effects of an experimental treatment cells in culture dishes rather than in intact organisms Additive effects - exposure to two or more chemicals has an effect equivalent to the sum of their individual effects Antagonistic effects - exposure to two or more chemicals has a lesser effect than the sum of their individual effects would predict Endocrine distributor - a molecule the interferes with the endocrine system, typically by mimicking a hormone or preventing a hormone from having an effect Hormone - a molecule released by the body that directs cellular activity and produces changes in how the body functions Receptor - a structure on or inside a cell that binds a hormone, thus allowing the hormone to affect the cell Dose-response curve - a graph of the effects of a substance at different concentrations or levels of exposures LD50 (lethal dose 50%) - the dose of a substance that would kill 50% of the test population


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