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by: Karly Vittetoe
Karly Vittetoe
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Terms Timeline Facts Predictors of Fertility Demographics
Resources Geology
Luca Fedele
Class Notes
terms, Timeline, fertility, demographics
25 ?




Popular in Resources Geology

Popular in Geoscience

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karly Vittetoe on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Luca Fedele in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Resources Geology in Geoscience at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
Growth Rate - the percent increase of population size over time; affected by births, deaths, and the number of people moving into or out of a regional population Life Expectancy - the number of years and individuals is expected to live Crude death rate - the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year Crude birth rate - the number of offspring per 1,000 individuals per year Population Density - the number of people per unit area Overpopulation - more people living in an area than is natural and human resources can support Population momentum - the tendency of a young population to continue to grow even after birth rates drop to "replacement rates" (2 children per couple) Infant mortality rate - the number of infants who die in their first year of life per every 1,000 live births in that year Total fertility rate (TFR) - the number of children the average woman has in her lifetime Demographic factors - population characteristics such as birth rate or life expectancy that influence how a population changes in size and comparison Developed country - a country that has a moderate to high standard of living on average and an established market economy Developing country - a country that has a lower standard of living than a developed country, and has a weak economy; may have high poverty Demographic transition - Theoretical model that describes the expected drop in once-high population growth rates as economic conditions improve the quality of life in a population Zero population growth - the absence of population growth; occurs when birth rates equal death rates Replacement fertility rate - the rate at which people must be born to replace those dying in the population Age structure - the part of a population pyramid that shows what percentage of the population is distributed into various age groups of males and females Sex ratio - the relative number of males to females in a population, calculated by dividing the number of makes by the number of females Age structure diagram - a graphic that displays the size of various age groups, with males shown on one side of the diagram and females on the other Gendercide - the systematics killing of a specific gender Immigration - the movement of people into a given population Emigration - the movement of people out of a given population Carrying capacity - the population size that an area can support for the long term; it depends on resource availability and the rate of per capita resource use by the population Agricultural Revolution (10000-8000 BCE) Old Stone Age New Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Ages Middle Ages Modern Times Thomas Malthus (English priest) said that too many mouths to feed but not enough food would result in disease, famine, and war In 1979, China instituted a mandatory policy that there could only be one child per family without loss of government benefits and a very high fine. About 90% of the people on Earth live on 10 % of the surface area, and most are north of the equator. Predictors for fertility: 1 Number of children desired 2 Agrarian societies have high pronatalist pressures 3 Large family for prestige and status 4 High infant mortality and desire to have survivors 5 China's TFR until the 1970s was 5-6 Demographic factors - health, education, economic conditions, and cultural influences - are very different from other developed and developing countries. Most of the world's population growth occurs in the developing nations, but most wealth is in developing nations. Demographic transition holds that, as a country's economy changes from preindustrial to postindustrial, low birth and death rates replace high birth and death rates. Pronatalist pressures - encourages having children to fulfil the family needs (work the farm, tend to household chores, care for aging parents…) "4-2-1 Conundrum" - 4 grandparents, 2 parents, 1 child (with all the responsibility)


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