Biochemistry for Anatomy Students
Biochemistry for Anatomy Students 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Biochemistry 1. Biochemistry consists of chemical composition and reactions of living matter 2. Bio compounds a. Inorganic (known as the compounds that lack carbon, but not the most important part) i. When they are put in water, they dissociate. ii. When we have ions in our body, we call them electrolytes. 1. Water (60-80% of biomass is water, most abundant and important compound in body) a. High heat capacity: Resistant to changes in temperature. i. Hard to heat up and cool it. Allows our body’s to keep a homeostatic body temperature. b. High heat of vaporization: water requires a lot of heat to change from a liquid to a gas. i. As we sweat, it can cool us down (requires a lot of energy) c. Universal solvent i. In order to be biologically reactive, it must be in a solution. This is why our body can have reactions and can transport things through our body. ii. Charged substances can dissolve in water. 1. Solution consists of a solvent (water) and solute (salt). (solute molecules dissolve into the solvent). 2. Solute: what is being dissolved 3. Solvent: what something is being dissolved into. d. Hydrolysis/condensation: i. Dehydration reaction is when we remove water to form a new bond 1. Anabolic ii. Hydrolysis reaction is when we add a water molecule to break a bond 1. Catabolic e. Cushion: cerebral spinal fluid that protects and cushions the brain and spinal cord. 2. Salts: anything that dissociates in order to produce cations and anions. Doesn’t give us a hydroxyl ion. a. When salts dissociate, they becoe electrolytes. i. Because electrolytes lead to electrical energy (giving charges in our body) 1. Essential for nervous conduction in nervous system, for muscles to contract, and they build bones and make teeth through the deposition of salts. a. Kidneys are only there to maintain electrolyte concentration. 3. Acids: when they dissociate they increase hydrogen ion concentration. a. Proton donor…. Note the citric acid cycle i. Contribute to electrical charges in body. ii. Charlie was a chemist, a chemist he was no more. What he thought was H2O was H2O4 4. Bases a. Reduce hydrogen ion concentration i. Pull those protons out of solutions b. pH: the description of the level of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. c. Expressed in a scale from 0-14 i. Anything below 7 is an acid ii. Anything about 7 is a base iii. Based on concentration of hydrogen ions in solution in moles/liters d. Is homeostatic (like most things in our body) i. Different parts of our body have different homeostatic optima (stomach pH:2; whereas other parts are close to 7) ii. Maintained by neutralization and buffering (maintain pH) 1. Neutralization: If we mix an acid and base together, we will always get water and salts. a. H2O + CO2 H2CO3 2. Buffers: Solutions that resist a change of pH when small amounts of acids or bases are added. a. H2O3HCO3 + H 3. Most of the foods we eat; most of the liquid calories are acidic (carbonated beverages or alcohol) b. Organic i. Carbohydrates: can make four bonds; these are sugars and starches and help make cells in our body (1-2% in body) main function is to be a main source of energy and to make ATP. (ATP is the currency of energy in the body) 1. Classified by the number of units they posses. a. Monosaccharide; one sugar also called simple sugars. These can be absorbed across the wall of the digestive tract. (3-7 carbons) i. Hexose (6 carbon sugar) -glucose; in glycolysis and probably the most talked about sugar in this class. b. Disaccharides: take two monosaccharide’s and put them together. Can not be absorbed through the digestive tract until they are broken apart. Combined through dehydration synthesis i. Sucrose: table sugar; glucose and fructose ii. Maltose: malt sugar iii. Lactose: milk sugar c. Polysaccharides: three or more joined together i. Cannot be absorbed; must be broken down; not sweet or water-soluble (not dissolvable in water) if we don’t need the energy right now, we make it a polysaccharide and store it until it is needed (converted into glycogen). ii. Lipids: think fats and oils a. Insoluble in water; they can dissolve in other lipids or other organic solvents. 2. Neutral fats: a. Triglycerides: energy storage molecules, but they also provide us insolation and protection. Can exist as fats or oils. Composed of fatty acids attached to glycerol. (three fatty acids bound to a single glycerol…nonpolar and cannot dissolve in water) i. Saturated: no double bonds between the carbons. (all single bonds) animal fats that we produce in the body and what we eat when we eat animal products. 1. Solids at room temp. 2. If we consume these, it contributes to an increase in cholesterol in body. ii. Unsaturated: one of the three fatty acids contains a single double bond. 1. Oil at room temp. 2. No effect on cholesterol 3. Found in plants iii. Polyunsaturated: two or more double bonds 1. Also a plant and an oil in room temp 2. Lower cholesterol. iv. Trans fats: broke a double bond in the polyunsaturated fatty acid and added hydrogen (hydrogenation). 1. Greatly increase cholesterol to give a huge risk of heart disease. v. Omega 3 fatty acids: three carbons on tail end and then a double bond 1. Found in fish oils 3. Phospholipids: one of the fatty acids is replaces with a phosphate a. Polar portion and nonpolar portion i. Amphipathic (nonpolar side doesn’t like water, polar side does like water) ii. basis of out plasma membrane 4. Steroids: make from four interlocking hydrocarbon rings a. Testosterone, progesterone b. Fat soluble and important lipids in the body because they can immediately pass through the membrane. c. Chemical messengers in the body (hormones; produced in one part of the body and effects the body somewhere else) 5. Eicosanoids: produced in one part of the body and effects that part of the body. iii. Proteins: 10-30% of mass of the cell. a. Made up of twenty different amino acids; nitrogen containing polypeptides. b. Basic structural material of the body. c. Come of these amino acids are only available in animal foods. 2. 4 types of structures a. Primary structure: the linkage of amino acids b. Secondary: when the primary structure begins to zig- zag. i. Rubber band starts to flip around itself by either coiling or folding. 1. Straight hair=folded Alco helix 2. Curly hair=coiled Alco helix c. Tertiary: continue to coil to give us a 3D structure with active sites. Can work as catalysts. This is one protein. d. Quaternary: Take two tertiary structures and coil around/ bind to each other. (Consists of more than one peptide chain/proteins interact with each other) 3. Types of Proteins a. Structural/fibrous: forms the structure of body parts b. Regulatory: function as hormones; long distance signaling molecule c. Contractile: found in muscle cells and allow muscles to contract (actin and myosin) d. Immunological: antibodies that fight infection e. Transport: carry things like hemoglobin (carries oxygen) f. Catalytic: function as enzymes i. Enzymes: proteins that function as biological catalysts; formed by teritiary 1. Have active sites that only certain substrates can bind to. Bonds in substrates are weakened. 2. Each enzyme can only catalyze a specific reaction. 3. Denaturation a. Loss of a protein’s three dimensional shape b. Destroys the active site c. Structural proteins Collagen is resistant to break downs in their shape d. Functional proteins can break down due to extreme increase in temp (drawing us away from optimal temp) iv. Nucleic Acids: nucleotides with hydrogenous basses that are bound to a sugar (deoxyribose) and bond to one another with peptide bonds. Make very very very long chains. (Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine) 1. DNA: found in nucleus of cells; contains genes coding segments; only function of a gene is to produce proteins (functional or structural) double stranded. Template to make RNA 2. RNA: single stranded. Made by DNA. RNA carries message from DNA to ribosomes, which actually create the protein. Sugar is ribose. (thymine is replaced by uracil) v. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) 1. Nucleotide attached to a ribose and phosphate. 2. Every time we break the bond from phosphate we get energy. 3. When we break bonds it is exergonic. Even though it takes energy to break a bond, the energy released from the bond is more than the activation energy. (Enzyme Activity) (Primary and Secondary structure of a protein) Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure
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