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Week 1 Notes

by: Megan

Week 1 Notes BIOL-L101


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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 1 which includes information on organisms, cell theory, evolution, and experimental design.
Intro to Biological Sciences 1
Deborah marr
Class Notes
Biology, Science




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L101 at Indiana University South Bend taught by Deborah marr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Sciences 1 in Biology at Indiana University South Bend.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
Biology Notes Chapter 1 (1.1-1.3, 1.5) Organism: a life-form—a living entity made up of one or more cells Most organisms share the following characteristics:  Energy: organisms need energy to stay alive and reproduce (ex. Plants absorb sunlight; animals ingest food)  Cells: membrane-bound units that make up organisms; the membrane of a cell regulates passage of material between exterior and interior spaces  Information: process genetic information encoded in genes; respond to environmental changes by stabilizing internal conditions  Replication: replicating itself is a goal that is reached by almost everything an organism does  Evolution: organisms are a result of evolution and each population continues to evolve Unifying ideas that aided in the process of modern biology:  The cell theory o All organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells  The theory of evolution by natural selection o Larger amounts of individuals survive each generation due to inherited traits that were adapted to better suit the living environment Cell: a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin, flexible structure called a plasma membrane and that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous (watery) solution  Capable of reproducing and dividing  Chemical reactions that help sustain life occur in cells Two components of most scientific theories:  Describes a pattern in the natural world  Identifies mechanism or process that is responsible for creating that pattern Evolution: change of characteristics of a population over time  Natural selection is how evolution occurs o Natural selection acts on individuals, but evolutionary change occurs in populations o Population: group of individuals of same species living in the same area at the same time  Artificial selection: changes in populations that happen when humans select certain individuals to produce offspring  Heritable: traits are able to be passed down to offspring  Fitness: ability of an individual to produce viable offspring  Adaptation: trait that increases the fitness of individuals in their particular environment Theory: an explanation for a general phenomenon or observations that are supported by a large amount of evidence Scientists always ask questions that can be answered through observing and measuring  They can’t address a question that can’t be answered through these things  Hypothesis: testable statement to explain a set of observations or a phenomenon o When testing a hypothesis:  State hypothesis as precise as possible and make predictions  Create an experimental or observational study that can test your predictions  Prediction: measurable or observable result that must be correct if a hypothesis is valid o Good predictions can be easily supported or rejected through collected data  Null hypothesis: specifies what should been observed when the hypothesis that was tested turned out incorrect  Experiment: scientific tool that allows researchers to test the effect of a single factor on a certain phenomenon Characteristics of a good experimental design:  Have control groups: groups that check factors that are not the ones being tested o Normal and unmanipulated  Experimental conditions must be as constant as possible o This makes it possible to focus on one changing variable without worrying about other factors making a difference in the results  Repeating the test o This is a way to make sure the result of the initial experiment wasn’t an exception


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