World Geography Intro
World Geography Intro GR1123
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by alb1081 on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Shatrughan Singh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geoscience at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
I. Introduction Chapter A. What is Geography? 1. Greek word origin 2. Study the spatial distribution of people, places, and things a) Physical space – natural b) Human space/Cultural space – social B. Human Geography 1. Focus on culture 2. Intangible: religion, language, political climate, economics, education C. Physical Geography 1. Tangible: landforms, climate, ecology, geology, glaciology D. How Do We Study Geography? 1. We study by regions a) Maps (1) Cartography – the study of making maps (art and science) (a) Title, scale, legend, cardinal directions (N-arrow) E. Scale 1. Important: there are small scales and large scales 2. Remote sensing a) Gaining info about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with it b) Satellites, radar, sonar, aerial photography, LIDAR c) Used to study the growth of cities over time F. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 1. Many applications, multiple layers 2. All about spatial relationships, patterns, and trends 3. Both physical and cultural G. Geography of the World 1. Interaction of human society and the natural environment H. 12 Geographic Realms 1. Environmental cultural, and organizational properties I. World Regional Geography 1. Encompasses both physical and human geography using geographic tools 2. Study the world in big and small scales and scopes 3. Operational scale – level of analysis a) Every day we use mental maps J. How We Study the World 1. Big scale to small scale a) Geographic Realms (1) Continents and areas of continents b) Geographic Regions (1) Midwest, Central Europe c) Individual States and Territories (1) Countries K. Geographic Realms (3 Criteria) 1. Physical and Human Distinction a) Must be able to differentiate an area by physical and human characteristics b) South America vs. North America – separated by land c) Southeast Asia vs. Middle East – different language/race/religion 2. Functional Interactions a) Human-Environment Interactions (1) Where society uses resources from the area and interactions occur between different societies (movement) (2) Ideas, fads, and communication travel from realm to realm (3) Farming, mining, etc. (4) Antarctica is NOT a realm. No humans 3. Historical Aspects a) Must have a dominant historical impact on human-kind. b) Europe: Industrial Revolution birth place c) North America: Multiculturalism (Melting Pot) d) Africa: the origin of humanity e) Asia: birthplace of religion (Hinduism/Buddhism) L. Two Types of Realms 1. Monocentric have one dominant country in the realm a) North America – United States b) East Asia – China 2. Polycentric are affected by many different countries M. Regions 1. Regions – places within realms 2. To define a region: a) Area b) Boundaries c) Location d) Homogeneity e) Regions as Systems N. Area/Boundaries/Location 1. Area – may have real or intellectual constructs a) Sahara Desert or wine region in California 2. Boundaries – can be natural or manmade 3. Location – all regions have location a) Absolute – Starkville is at *latitude and longitude* b) Relative – Mainland Southeast Asia O. Homogeneity 1. Can be either human or physical 2. The “sameness” of a variable within an area P. Regions as Systems 1. Must have functional integration a) Farm to City Relationships 2. Trade 3. City supplies goods and services, rural areas supply farm products Q. Physical Settings 1. Impact on region – clothing, food, jobs, etc. 2. Elements a) Natural landscapes – mountains b) Geology – resources, mining, farmland c) Climate – temperature, rain, glaciers R. Geology 1. Alfred Wegener – German a) Fossils matched across continents b) Created super continent aka Pangea (1) Continents were joined at South Pole moved apart, now moving towards each other again 2. Continental Drift – plate tectonics are moving in different speeds in different directions a) When plates collide, we get earthquakes and volcanoes b) Ring of Fire – earthquakes and volcanoes around pacific ocean S. Glaciers 1. 80% of fresh water 2. Glaciation periods – glaciers expand across land 3. Interglacial period – glaciers recede T. Latitude and Longitude 1. Latitude a) N to S b) Parallels – Equator c) 0 – 90 degrees 2. Longitude a) E to W b) Meridians – Prime Meridian c) 0 – 180 degrees d) 15 degrees between each time zone e) Greenwich, England – Universal Time U. High, Middle, Low Latitudes V. Physical Hemispheres 1. Eastern – E of PM 2. Western – W of PM 3. Southern – below equator 4. Northern – above equator W. Arctic and Antarctic Regions 1. Arctic – frozen water, claimed by countries 2. Antarctic – Frozen land, not claimed X. Climate 1. Mostly temperature and precipitation 2. Koppen-Geiger – first system to define climate systematically a) A – Humid, tropical b) B – Desert and dry c) C – Humid temp d) D – Humid cold e) E – Cold polar Y. Controls on Climate 1. Latitude a) High latitude – less distinct sunlight, cooler temps 2. Altitude a) High altitude – cooler 3. Continentally a) Places closer to water have moderate temperatures b) Locations in center of continents have more extremes (1) AR is affected more than NY or OR Z. How Climate Changes 1. Naturally a) Planet movement, solar variability, volcanoes 2. Anthropogenic (Man-made) a) CO2 release, methane, aerosols b) Changing land use, deforestation, automobile and power use AA. Realms of Population 1. 7.2 billion people – growing crazily 2. Population clusters – caused by water and fertile soil a) South Asia (1) India, Pakistan, Bangladesh b) East Asia (1) China, Korea c) Europe (1) All of Europe BB. Realms of Culture 1. Culture - distinctive attributes of a society 2. Theory by Carl Saver a) Using the physical landscape to express culture through (1) Buildings, gardens, roads, dress, food, and music 3. A real has several cultural landscapes 4. Language and religion – two major determinants of culture CC. Language 1. Heart of culture 2. Can emerge and die out 3. Most trade is done in the English language 4. Lingua franca – second language a) The lingua franca of the U. S. is Spanish DD. World Religions 1. Second biggest determinant 2. Christianity 3. Islam 4. Hinduism 5. Buddhism EE. Countries or States 1. Countries are states 2. Largest state is Russia 3. Smallest state is the Vatican City FF. Sovereignty 1. Means “self-rule” 2. Most of the time countries honor sovereignty GG. Nation vs. State 1. Nation – a group of people who feel bounded by a common language, culture, religion, history, or ethnicity a) Japan 2. State – a sovereign self-governing political entity a) Canada 3. Nations only: Cherokee, Quebec, Belgium 4. States only: Taiwan, Vatican City, Swaziland HH. Nation-State 1. Ethnically and culturally homogenous people with national boundary and government 2. Non nation-states a) Israel-Pakistan b) United Kingdom c) Pakistan-Afghanistan II. Political Geography 1. Geographies can change: a) West and East Germany JJ. Economic Geography 1. Separation of Rich and Poor a) West is rich, east is poor KK. Gini Coefficient 1. Statistical formula measuring degree of dispersion LL. Globalization 1. A geographic process in which economic, cultural, and political relations shift to ever-broader scales
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