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Botant 110 Week 1 Notess

by: Madilynn_Danielle

Botant 110 Week 1 Notess BTNY 11000 - 010

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Everything from bonds to ATP
Introduction To Plant Science
Peter B Goldsbrough,Robert E Pruitt
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madilynn_Danielle on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BTNY 11000 - 010 at Purdue University taught by Peter B Goldsbrough,Robert E Pruitt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views.

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Date Created: 08/30/16
Botany 110 Notes WK1 Why Do Plant Matter?  Molecules of life o Universe: H & He o Earth: H,C,N,O,Na,Mg,Al,Si,P,S,Cl,K,Ca,Fe o Organisms: H,C,N,O,Na,Mg,P,S,Cl,K,Ca,Fe  Protons: positive charge  Neutrons: no charge  Electrons: negative charge  Atomic Number: number of protons in an atom  Atomic Mass: number of protons plus neutrons in an atom  Bonds o Covalent: formed when 2 atoms share electron pairs (strongest) o Ionic: The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions (medium strength) o Hydrogen: electrons are not always held equally tightly by 2 atoms. Polarity results from the partial + or – charge caused by the unequal distribution of electrons. An extremely important polar molecule is water!! (weakest bond)  Water o Solid, liquid, and gas o Highly effective solvent o Hydrogen bonds make water cohesive o High specific heat (takes a while for the temp. to change) o Ice is less dense than water. Ice freezes at the top of water, so beneath the ice organisms can still survive  Carbon (it’s with virtually everything!) o Carbon can share 4 electrons forming covalent bonds o Can participate in many types of chemical reactions o Most often bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon o Carbon bonds are weak and can easily broken  Organic o Carbohydrates: contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body. (Starch, sugar and cellulose) o Lipids: fats. Fatty acids are NONpolar  Saturated fat: a fat in which the fatty acids all All in nutrition labels have single bonds  Polyunsaturated fat: a fat in which the fatty acids all have two double bonds  Unsaturated fat: a fat that has a least one double bond o Proteins: large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid o Nucleic Acids: include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), are made from monomers known as nucleotides (added in the numbers in the nutrition label) o Monosaccharides: single sugars (glucose6, frutose6, ribose6) o Disaccharides: two sugars (sucrose) o Polysaccharides: many sugars (starch and cellulose)  Phospholipids: hydrophobic  Proteins o Polymers : large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits  Made from amino acids (AA)  More than one bond = peptide bond  More than two bonds = dipeptide  More than three bonds = tripeptide  Enzymes o reduce the activation energy of a reaction o they bring everything together perfectly, which lowers the energy output o also known as a catalyst  Nucleic Acids o DNA & RNA o Polymers o Nitrogenous base  DNA = A, G, C, T  RNA = A, G, C, U o Polymerize into strings of nucleotides o Hydrogen bonds can form between two strands with complementary sequences  ATP (adenine triphosphate) o Energy created in a cell. If no energy, the cell is dead  Secondary Metabolites o organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism


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