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Class 2 Notes

by: Molly Notetaker

Class 2 Notes 3503

Molly Notetaker
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About this Document

Notes typed up from class 2 lecture
Courts and Judicial Process
Carolina H. Lawler
Class Notes
courts, judicial, Processes, judicialprocesses, Criminal, Law, Criminal Justice, CriminalJustice




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Notetaker on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3503 at East Carolina University taught by Carolina H. Lawler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Courts and Judicial Process in Criminal Justice at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 08/30/16
Class 2 Section 2: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Courts ● Conflict: The wellspring of the modern court ○ Legal codes= body of law ○ Emerged out of need for conflict resolution ○ Draconia­no wiggle room, you should be punished, same  punishments for different things ○ Code of hammurabi ■ crime­­> punishment ■ Specific punishments for specific crimes ● Henry II: a body of law had been developed and decisions of the courts were  written down and circulated ○ Common law system, England to American Colonies ● Why Government courts? ○ Ecclesiastic courts (aka Court Christian) ○ Manor courts­ heavily decentralized courts that settled various  legal matter and disputes without the king’s involvement ○ Gave way to more government­run courts ● Mediation: neutral their party, parties to dispute together and resolve ● Binding arbitration: dispute agree to abide by the neutral party’s decisions,  which cannot be appealed.  ● Judicial = interpreting the law ● Stare Decisis and Precedent ○ Stare Decisis: let the decision stand, looking to the past and  deferring to them ○ Precedent: the binding only on those courts within the jurisdiction of the court issuing the opinion ○ USSC applicable to ALL states ○ Courts can overrule themselves ● Why not follow precedent? ○ Facts in the case are different from the cases decided previously ○ They believe the Precedent should be overruled ○ Statutes and constitutional provisions can be ambiguous ● Adjudication ○ The primary role played by the courts is to adjudicate criminal  offenses­ to process defendants who have been arrested by the police and formally charged with criminal offenses ● Oversight ○ Courts provide oversight not over lower courts but over the CJ  system ○ During appeals the court decides whether proper procedure was  followed at the lower level ● Striking a Difficult Balance ○ Every decision a judge makes pits two contradictory sets of values  against each other ○ Packer­ Crime control Model and Due Process Model ■ Due Process ● Factually guilty­ Ex: OJ Simpson ● Legally guilty­ state doesn’t meet its  burden (beyond a reasonable doubt) ● Crime Control Model ○ Views the suppression of criminal conducts­ controlling crime­ as  the most important function of the criminal justice system ○ The primary function of the system is to control crime by  apprehending, convicting and punishing those who violate the law ○ Efficiency is key ○ Emphasizes speed, which depends on the informality and  uniformity, and finality ○ Suspects who are innocent are screened out in the early processes,  those who are guilty are moved quickly through the remaining stages and  convicted faster ■ Plea Bargaining ● Presumptions of guilt ○ Innocent till proven guilty ● Due Process Model ○ Process as an obstacle course ○ Each stage is designed to throw up hurdles to carry the case from  one stage to next ○ Stresses reliability ○ Calls for fact­finding procedures that are formal, adjudicative, and  adversarial ● The ongoing battle ○ High caseloads, limited resources, concerns about protecting the  community  ● Juvenile Court ○ Parens patriae: medieval doctrine that permitted the state to take  away the rights of the natural parent and to act as the parent or guardian of a child  if his or her welfare were a risk ○ The philosophy of the juvenile justice system rests on  rehabilitation ● Treatment DIfference from Adult offenders ○ JJS is more discretionary and less formal ○ JC proceedings are less likely than adult proceedings to be open to  the public ○ Following adjudication, the majority of youth offenders are placed  on probation ○ Those placed in confinement are sent to juvenile detention  facilities  ● Lowering the age when children can be transferred from juvenile court to criminal courts ○ NC: 16 and below ● Expanding the list of offenses for which juveniles can be waived to criminal  courts ● In juvenile court Judge not Jury determine the outcome _____________________ ● Criminological triage policies ● The kid is a criminal and the criminal is a kid 


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