Geography and Trade
Geography and Trade PBIO 3440
Popular in Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants
Popular in Plant Biology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 3440 at University of Georgia taught by Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Myth, Religion, and Geographic Region Mandrake Potato family o Fruit and flower o Glow in moonlight o Contain alkaloids Tropane, atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and hallucinogenics Anesthetic properties Increase fertility Ward off evil Dioscorides o Lives 1 century A.D. o Traceled as physician with Nero’s Army o De Materia Medica Standard medical text for about 1400 years Myth that if you dug up mandrake, it would screech and either kill you or drive you mad Peyote Cactus, Lophophora williamsii Hallucinogenic plant Native to border of south west U.S. and Mexico Waxy stem with no leaves and long tap Used by Aztec priesthood, banned by Spanish Contains the alkaloid mescaline Used as sacrament by the Native American Church o Evolved in the late 1800s o Similar to the Aztec religion mixed with Christianity Peyote is the bread and wine of the religion Enthogen o That which generated God or the divine within a person Incense Burning aromatic plants o Calming influence o Offering from physical world to the spiritual world Sandalwood, Santalum album Group of hemi-parasitic trees in the genus of santalum Mistletoe belongs to the same Major Geographic Regions Most herbs and spices originate from three major geographic regions o European and Mediterranean o Old World Tropics (India, East Asia) o New World Tropics (South America) In antiquity, spices were useful for flavoring foods, medication, perfume, ceremonies, rituals, and for preserving food. The same components that are appealing as food have medicinal properties. Herbs and spices were, for a long time, hard to get and expensive. Bacterial Inhibitors Many herbs and spices are potent inhibitors of bacteria growth o Extracts of 30 herbs and spices were tested against several bacterial cultures o All inhibited or killed at least ¼ of the bacterial species o Four most potent herbs/spices tested killed all bacterial species 2 Garlic Onion Allspice Oregano Mummification Herbs o Cumin, anise, majorum, cinnamon, myrrh, frankincense Long Distance Trade Egyptian Queen (Hatshepsut) sent an expedition to the Land of Punt (now Ethiopia) o Brought back 30 myrrh trees Eber’s Papyrus o 1500 BC o 65 ft. long papyrus with about 700+ prescriptions and their recipes plants mostly originated in Asia and were transported to Europe patterns of conquest in the Middle East resulted in an on- again/off-again flow of spiced from the Far East to Europe o during the Dark Ages (476-1096) the Arabs were in control of the spice trade and Europeans were cut off from the supply Muslim Curtain Arabs continued their own use of the Spice Trade When the Dark Ages ended with the first Crusade in 1096, Europeans regained access to the spice trade o Simulated desire to break Arab trade monopoly o Overland routes were formed to India, China, and South West Asia which delivered spices to Venice and Genoa These city-states became fabulously wealthy and lead to the finding of art, cultural, and 3 scientific achievements in the Italian Renaissance In the 1400s, the expansion of the Turkish empire cut Europe from their medicinal herbs, plants, and spices via land route o Led to search of sea routes toward Far East o In 1498, Vasco de Gama reached India by sailing around the African Cape of Good Hope o By 1560, newfound sea routes restored spices to Europe o Columbus got his exploration approved and funded with the promise of retrieving spices Desire to get these commodities launched the Age of Exploration Portuguese were the first to dominate Asian Trade Dutch displaces the Portuguese and had a 200 year monopoly which was murderous and tyrannical British took over the monopoly in 1796 Age of Exploration was followed by mass colonialism o People began transporting spice plants all over the world, so they could be cultivated at new settlements o Botanical gardens served as centers to introduce new species for cultivation Cloves are an example of a spice that colonial Europeans attempted to control by limiting production o Dutch expelled Portuguese from the spice islands in 1605 o Dutch East India Company limited clove production to one island and expedited it from others Anyone illegally planting/trading cloves was put to death 1770 a French missionary smuggled some seedlings off of the island led to large scale cultivation in Tanzania 4 5
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