Thinking Critically; The science of Psychology
Thinking Critically; The science of Psychology Psyc 2010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Thinking Critically with Psychology Science Why do Psychology? How can we differentiate between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions? The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people f eel, think and act as they do! What about Intuition and Comm on Sense? Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error (What is common sense to us may not be common sense to everybody else) Hindsight Bias (“I knew it all along”) After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. e.x. urricane Katrina, Stocks, housing market >>Because of hindsight we develop a Overconfidence where sometimes we think we know more than we actually know. The Scientific Attitude “Often times we tend to see patterns in random events. We try in some way to make sense of those things.” The scientific attit de is composed of c uriosity (passion for exploration), skepticis m (doubting and q uestioning; this includes critical thinking abilities) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong). Critical thinking Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. It examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions. How do psychologists ask and answer questions? Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific methods to c onstruct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations. Theory; is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behaviors or events. e.x. Low selfesteem contributes to depression Hypothesis; a testable prediction, often promoted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory e.x. People with low selfesteem are apt to feel more depressed Resear ch Observations; would require us to a dminister tests of selfesteem and depression e.x. Low scoreSelf Esteem High scoreDepression =Hypothesis is confirmed Types of Research Laboratories Control; participants know they are being studied, unnatural, not representative Natural Settings Observe true behaviors; no control over variables Descriptive Research Case studies, surveys and naturalistic observation describe behaviors. Case Study A technique in which one person or small group is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. Observation Naturalistic observation; Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. Survey and interviews A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a r epresentative, r andom sample of people. Wording Effects; W ording can change the results of a survey Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on TV? Should cigarette ads and pornography by fordiden on TV? Random Sampling; if each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid. How do Psychologists ask and answer questions? The Scientific Method Description Correlation; W hen one trait or behavior accompanies another we say the two correlate. (0.00 to 1.00 indicates strength of the relationship/ positive or negative) Correlation Coefficient; Describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables Scatterplot; A graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variable. The slope of the point depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship. Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life; Doubt big, round, undocumented numbers as they can be misleading and before long, become public misinformation Statistical Significance; The results are not due to chance alone Clinical Significance; G enuine effect on daily life Describing Data; A meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions
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