Chapter 1 Week 1 Western and Central Asia
Chapter 1 Week 1 Western and Central Asia art 2430
Popular in Non-western Art
Popular in Art
ART 2140 - 05
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Bussard on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to art 2430 at Wright State University taught by sally struthers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Non-western Art in Art at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Introduction Chapter 1 Art Beyond the West September 1, 2016 Nonwestern Art and Aesthetics o Developed many highly innovative and intricately structured nonrepresentational art forms such as interlaces and arabesques o They apply to a wide variety of materials and objects Their religious and secular architecture Persian poets are known as o Zarifs o Dandies o Dilettantes o Connoisseurs o They developed a vocabulary of formal and aesthetic terms to discuss the arts Nonwestern art terms o Jamil beauty o Itidal symmetry o Ajib that which is astonishing o Tanasub Harmony or unity o Musanabah Balance o Maqadir Measure o Bayadat Spacing Philosophy of art emerged from religious practices such as Hinduism o Rasa Juice or essence Meaning an emotional reaction of satisfaction experienced when looking at art that leads to brahman, pure and conscious bliss The highest form of rasa creates bhakti, a bond and intimate relationship between observer, work, and the gods it represents Bhakti can overlap with darsana, vision of the divine These terms apply to places of worship o Microcosms of the universe encompassing the world of humankind and that of the gods Buddhism Second major Indian religious that influenced the philosophy of art o Buddhism o Well known for its sculptures of Buddha o Buddha emphasizes inner peace Buddhists developed a complex religious iconography in their pictorial arts and illustrated a large number of divine individuals knowns as bodhisattvas o Those who have bodhi (wisdom) as their goal and are dedicated to helping humankind o Buddhists built outdoor places of worship known as stupas In 1858, Queen Victoria became Empress of India, ushering in nearly a century of direct colonial rule that lasted until 1947. o Traditional forms of Indian art coexisted and often fused with Western art Chinese Culture While religions were emerging in India, Chinese cultures were developing their own spiritual and philosophical ideals that would shape indigenous visual art forms. o Confucius believed that one could achieve li (perfect harmony) and ren (human heartedness) in this life by imitating the otherworld of gods. o Lao Zi taught and wrote about the Dao (The Way) and the need to live in harmony with nature and the universe In ming, the ultimate inward vision, the vital forces of nature (ying/yang) become one in the Daoist’s experience of the oneness of all creation o Xie He said artists must have a “sympathetic responsiveness” to the qi, a term that can mean many things, including “spirit of nature”. Chinese thinkers are known as wenren (literati or scholars) o Chan, later known as Zen in Japanese, a philosophy By the 18th century, Chinese art had become sought after in Europe o Gave rise to a style of art known as chinoiserie (French for “Chinesestyle things”) Japanese Art Japan’s ancient native religion, Shintoism, and the art it inspired draw on the unpretentious values of Japan’s early agrarian society o Japanese writers use several key terms to describe and explain Shinto aesthetics Wabi Purity and humility Sabi Stillness and rusticity Four ideals of Japanese aesthetics are based on both indigenous and imported traditions o The importance attached to suggestion (that which is not fully shown, said, or done but only implied o impermanence (the fleeting or ephemeral nature of existence, which adds a tragic note to art and life o Irregularity (which gives art a natural, almost accidental look o Apparent simplicity (which belies the true complexity of art and thought These principles are examined in greater detail later and used to examine key works o These ideals created an art of subtle refinement and restrained beauty with universal appeal The vogue for Japanese art and esthetics in the West in the late nineteenth century gave rise to japonisme (a French word used to describe the fascination with Japanesestyle things) Mana, a complex spiritual ideal often simplified in translation as “power” o combined with the notion of tapus, from which the English term taboo is derived o restrictions on the use of that power, helped create distinctive regional philosophies of art. o The hundreds of giant stones heads with small torsos carved by the Easter Islanders and erected around the island reflect this philosophy of art and power Have become internationally recognized symbols of Pacific art and culture African Art Most African art has been made of wood and other perishable materials o Very few ancient works used in ancient ceremonies survived In Nigeria, artists sculpted clay and cast metals, which means that we have the necessary materials to allow us to study their stylistic development o The Yoruba of Nigeria had one of the world’s great courtly traditions in the arts, creating a long series of idealized portrait heads of their leaders which embody complex ideas about earthly and spiritual beauty o Yoruba aesthetics center around the phrase iwa l’ewa meaning ‘character is beauty’ or ‘essential nature is beauty’ o The basic word for beauty in Yoruba is ewa and incorporates ifarahon (clarity of line and form), jihora (relative likeness), and itutu (a calm, collected, and cool quality) The slave trade, colonization of Africa, and resulting diaspora sent Africans and their cultural traditions around the world The highly diverse topography of the Americas (deserts, woodlands, prairies, tundras, and mountains) o the ethnocultural diversity of PreColumbian America combined to produce a wide variety of regional religious systems and styles of art Many islands in and around Peru became technically skilled weavers and so accustomed to composing forms and images within the rightangled warpandweft patterns of the threads on their looms that they developed what we call a “textile aesthetic” o They use these abstracted images to create monumental geoglyphs, drawings or markings on the ground o The short lived Inca Empire was in the process of building on these and other traditions when the Spanish conquered South America in the 16th century Navajo As Mexico, Canada, and the United States extended their reach into North America, they encountered a wide variety of indigenous artistic traditions flourishing across the continent. o There were large pueblos, “Spanish villages” o More scattered groups of Navajo living in small hogans, or houses The Navajo see art and life as a corn plant, with hozho, “a world of perfect beauty” as it’s stalk Hozho can also mean happiness, health, beauty of the land, and all things in perfect harmony. No one was called an artist because, in Navajo thought, everyone has creative powers and can make beautiful, aesthetically pleasing things o Shil hozho means “with me there is beauty” o Shaa hochzo means “beauty radiates from me” Hozho and hochzo coexist and when hochzo begins to dominate one’s spirit, it is time to conduct a healing ceremony in which all the Navajo arts forms are used o Navajo portable works of art included buffalo hides painted with pictorial symbols representing each year in their recent past The Mayans Scholars use the term “Mesoamerica” to refer to an area extending south and east from northern Mexico through the Yucatan Peninsula to Honduras and El Salvador o The Maya in and around the Yucatan Peninsula have been studied with particular interest because they were the only fully literate people in PreColumbia America. o Their inscriptions, pictorial arts, architecture, and literary traditions all worked together to express the power of the gods and their rulerregents on earth o Mayans placed high value on fine brushwork, which they used to write about their gods and rulers and paint images of them holding court in the otherworld Maya use the same verb for “to paint” and “to write” (ts’ib) o Maya glyphs can still be read Aztecs Build a large empire at the other end of Mesoamerica o Covering the central part of presentday Mexico o They began to absorb the earlier artistic traditions of the peoples they had conquered Work was directed by an elite class of poetpriests called the tlamatinime (those who know) who held gatherings to share their poetry to discuss matters of art and philosophy Coatlicue in Context Artists working for the Aztec leaders completed a set of very large sculptures honoring an important Aztec goddess, Coatlicue (She of the Serpent Skirt) o Put them in prestigious locations (near the main temple, now present day Mexico City) Diego Rivera o The Great City of Tenochtitlan, 1945 o Detail of the mural in the patio corridor, National Palace, Mexico City Coatlicue o Earth goddess o Dual themes of life and death o “Mother of the earth who gives birth to all celestial things o “Mother of the gods” o Her death symbolism that is most evident in the necklace she wears of human hands and hearts with a beadyeyes skull pendantsigns of human sacrifice (explain the importance of human sacrifice in Aztec thought) People considered it an honor to die for this cause o These sacrifices are necessary to keep their world alive The Spanish Catholics who conquered Tenochtitlan and the rest of Mexico were appalled by the Aztecs pagan religion o Catholics took over the city and buried all the sculptures of the goddesses Mythologies created and perpetuated by talented and often competing storytellers who in their quest to outperform one another add new twists o The Aztec leaders probably wanted to illustrate the various different aspects of the goddess the people knew through the many colorful myths circulating at the time Coatlicue fits the myth where she is an elderly guardian priestess of a shrine north of the valley of Mexico o She becomes pregnant when a ball of hummingbird feathers touched her breasts o To restore her family honor, her four hundred children decided to kill their pregnant mother, but as they were cutting off all her body parts, the male child she was carrying leaped out and killed them all. This was Huitzilopochtli (Hummingbird on the Left) who became the Aztec god of war and the sun Aztec society included elite groups of leaders and high ranking poetpriests In class notes Western and Central Asia September 1, 2016 Terms: Apotropaic device o Something built or meant to turn away evil Heraldic symmetry o Two objects facing each other around a central axis Hiertic scale o Part human, part animal Animal style o Using a lot of animals in art work Crenellated tower o Influenced castle building Anatolia o Modern day Turkey Western Asia gave birth to many civilizations Ancient near East = Neolithic age o Gobleki tepe Birth of religion Jericho Mud, brick, rubble, stone Destruction of Hebrew people Battle of Jericho Early walled city Helped in times of warfare Walls mean security 610 acres Thick and tall walls Ain Ghazal In Jordan Neolithic Catalhoyuk Town in modern day Turkey Entered from the roof tops People lived under ground Good for protection Religious evidence Had many shrines and rooms of worship Volcanoes produce obsidian Obsidian was used for weapons Also a good trading item People worshipped the volcanoes Bronze Age Sumer o Earliest bronze age civilization o Had writings o Organization religion (god, priests, temples) o City state Cuneiform writing o Earliest form of writing Clay tablets Stylus Chisel in stone Ziggurats Temples (warka, Iraq) Votive Stand in to pray Stolen art ended up on black market and in the USA Royal cemetery in Ur Harps Mother of pearl Seals Way to mark property Shows ownership Akkad Next largest civilization A sculpture of the head of an Akkadian ruler Lost wax casting Has a core Wax is poured over core and then details are added Wax is encased in clay and then put in a kiln The wax melts away Bronze is then poured to form permanent figure Babylon Stele of Hammurabi o A marker; big slab of stone (historical or for graves) o First written law plus punishments; Hammurabi Assyria o Kalhu (Nimrud) = Ziggurat (temple) Lamassus o Normally a ceature o Winged; human head; bull or a lion o An apotropaic device (like a dream catcher) o Extra leg to show dimension o A relief sculpture NeoBabylonian Ishtar gate o Ceremic o Dragons, bulls o Glazes brick o Blue glaze Coins were first minted in east Asia Achaemenid Persia o Had a huge empire o Persepholis Hall of Darius and Xerxes Scythians Affiliated with Persians Brought tributes to the kings Sasanian Persia Alexander the Great conquered 330 BCE Shapur o King who captured Islams Iwan o Brick audience hall o Archeway trend
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