New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Abnormal Psychology Week 1

by: Yesenia Notetaker

Abnormal Psychology Week 1 PSY 4343

Yesenia Notetaker
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Abnormal Psychology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Abnormal Psychology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Abnormality + Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Amy Pinkham
Class Notes




Popular in Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yesenia Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 4343 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Amy Pinkham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at Dallas.


Reviews for Abnormal Psychology Week 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/31/16
08/22/16 - Abnormality  What is Abnormal?  The Four D's -> not always have all 4  Deviant  Social Norm  Most people don't do it  Stimming (+ context: autistic)  Costumes (+ context: non-Halloween)  Statistically Deviant  2 Standard Deviations outside mean/average  IQ's  Can be good or not.  Being normal can also not be good (context)  Distressing  Self  Self-Harm behavior/thought  Other  Loved ones, usually  Presence of distress  Motivates treatment seeking behaviors  Absence of distress  Lacking empathy, pain, hunger, etc.  Dysfunctional  Impairment, not working  Usually a criterion for diagnosis  Dangerous  Self  Self-harm  Other  Collaterals  Case Example: Claire  Fulfills all four D's  Deviant  Many people do not react this way  Distressing  More than one episode  Dysfunctional  Every day life not working  Dangerous  Self-harm and others 08/22/16 - Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context  The Supernatural Model: Mental Illness as a Stigma.  Characteristics  Those with mental illness are weak or bad  Mental patients often separated from society  Treatment: Discipline, punishment  Components  People feel ostracized and embarrassed when seeking treatment for psychological distress  Media depiction of mental illness has a large impact.  Early Biological Explanations  Hippocrates  Classified mental illness  Mania  Melancholia  Phrenitis  Believed normal brain function depended on four humors, or fluids of the body  Blood  Changeable temperament  Black bile  Melancholia  Yellow bile  Irritability  Anxiousness  Phlegm  Sluggish  Dull  Basic premise foreshadowed aspects of contemporary thought  Human behavior is markedly affected by bodily structures or substances and that odd behavior is produced by some kind of physical imbalance or damage  Dark Ages: Supernatural Model returns  Witch Persecution  Noteworthy: More healthy than mentally ill people were tried, contrary to possible belief.  Lunacy trials  Noteworthy: English hospital made for the sole purpose of 'protecting the mad' and 'Lunacy trials' determined a person's insanity, judgement that allowed the Crown to become the individual's guardian.  Evolution of Contemporary Thought  Psychological Approaches  Psychoanalytic Model  Freud and Jung  Characteristics  Behavior determined largely by underlying psychological forces of which the person is not consciously aware  The Psyche  Unconscious  Internal forces are dynamic  Abnormal symptoms result of conflicts between forces  Deterministic Assumption  All of your behavior is determined by your past experiences (not your learning)  Internalized, in your unconscious, driving current behavior  The unconscious exists  The Psychic Apparatus (1900-1915)  All driven by central, internal drives  Primary internal drive is Sexual Satisfaction  Unable to satisfy, causes abnormal behavior  Consciousness  Awareness of surroundings  Preconscious  Ideas not thinking about, but are readily accessible  Barrier  Does not allow the ideas in unconscious move forward  Unconscious  Largest part of psyche  The Psychic Apparatus (1923)  Modified previous theory  All driven by central, internal drives  Primary internal drive is Sexual Satisfaction  Added aggression  Consciousness  Awareness of surroundings  Preconscious  Ideas not thinking about, but are readily accessible  Barrier  Does not allow the ideas in unconscious move forward  Unconscious  Largest part of psyche  Iceberg Model  Ego  Tip of iceberg  Consciousness  Ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are aware  Just below the water  Preconscious  Material that can be easily recalled  Deep  Unconscious  Well below the surface of awareness  Superego  Ego ideal, moral guardian  Psyche  Id - It  Instinctual drives  Sex and aggression  Pleasure principle  Satisfy these urges  Primary process thinking  Scattered  Ego - I  Reality principle  Realistic way of approaching the world  Helps you behave socially acceptable  Keeps you from acting from aggressive impulses  Defense mechanism  Unconscious processes that prevent our knowledge of intolerable thoughts or anxieties; allow venting of these conflicts indirectly  Repression  Not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious  Denial  Refusing to acknowledge the existence of an external source of anxiety  Projection  Attributes own unacceptable impulses, motives, or desires to others  Rationalization  Creates socially acceptable reason for an action that actually reflects unattractive motives  Secondary process thinking  Rational, problem solving  Superego – over I  Conscience  Moral attitudes, what is right and wrong  Culturally influenced  Develops over time  UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS = ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR  When we can't defend  Parapraxes - 'Slips'  Occur when the unconscious sexual and aggressive drives break through due to the failure of ego defenses  They are not premeditated, they are leaked  Wit - jokes  A controlled release of the id  Regression in service of the ego for the means of venting the id impulses  Freud's Developmental Stages  Each stage of development focuses on a different sexually erogenous zone of the body  Can go three ways  Successful resolution  Fixation  Getting stuck in a stage  Regression  Completing the stage, but regressing when dealing with anxiety  Libidinal or erogenous zones  Oral stage (0-1)  Dependency and reliability of caregivers  Anal stage (1-2,3)  Learning control and order  Your body  environment  Phallic or Oedipal stage (3-6)  Development / emergence of understanding there are different sexes, and they can help receive sexual gratification  Castration Anxiety -> Oedipus complex  Want mom, dad is jealous, he will cut off my penis  Penis envy -> Electra complex  I don't have a penis, dad can give me his  Latency stage (6-12)  Sexual desire diminishes, interact with same sex peers  Genital stage (puberty)  Adult sexual interest  If phallic stage was properly resolved  Heterosexual relationships  Homosexuality?  Psychodynamic Therapy  Role of analyst: blank screen  Listen  Point out Freudian slips  Point out Inconsistency  Free association  Say whatever comes to your mind when I say [insert word]  Foundation of Talk Therapy  If we let people talk without a filter, they could come around to their issue  Dream analysis  Represents the unconscious and the id  Manifest content  What you remember from your dream  Latent content  What it means  Resistance  On the part of the client  If client resists to talk about something, that is what they need to focus on  Transference  Client behaves towards therapists as the behave toward a known person that causes conflict/anxiety  Catharsis  Venting  Reaction to a bad experience that makes you feel better  Assessing the Psychodynamic Model  Groundbreaking contributions  First theory to state that normal and abnormal behavior may stem from same process  First theory to utilize psychological (rather than biological) treatments  Enduring components  Defense mechanisms = coping mechanisms  Developmental view: childhood events shape our adult personalities  Memories can be repressed  Therapeutic alliance  Work together with your therapist  The better the relationship, the harder you work in therapy  Weak Points  Concepts difficult to define and research  Extremely outdated view of women's psychological health  Behavioral Model  Skinner  Watson  Focuses on behaviors – the responses an organisms makes to its environment  Behaviors are learned  Abnormal behavior:  Learning how to deal with the world in a maladaptive way.  Two main ways of learning  Classical conditioning (Pavlov)  Learning by a temporal association  Pairing of neutral stimulus with a nonneutral stimulus leads one to respond to the neutral stimulus as would respond to nonneutral stimulus  Pavlov's dog  Operant conditioning (skinner)  Rewarding or punishing a response until the person learns to repeat or avoid the response in anticipation of positive or negative consequences  Reinforcement: increases performance of behavior  Punishment: decreases performances of behavior  Behavioral principles  Reinforcement: increase behavior  Positive reinforcement  Increase behavior by presenting something positive ot desirable  Negative reinforcement  Increase behavior by removing something negative or undesirable  Punishment: decrease behavior  Positive punishment  Decrease behavior by presenting something aversive  Negative punishment  Decrease behavior by removing something positive  Shaping  Reinforcing successive approximations of a desired response until that response is gradually achieved  Extinction  Decrease behavior by unpairing (a) unconditioned and conditioned stimuli or (b) behavior and reinforcement  Generalization  Transferring a conditioned response from the conditioned stimulus to a similar stimuli  Discrimination  Learning to confine a response to a particular stimulus, and not to a similar stimuli  Modeling  Learning by observing others, without experiencing conditions of classical or operant conditioning directly  Behavioral Treatments  Exposure  Expose the person to their fears  Systematic Desensitization  Exposure in a gradual way (Wolpe)  Differential Reinforcement of Behaviors  Behavioral shaping  Getting people to do what you want them to do  Assessing the behavioral model  Groundbreaking contributions  The idea of translation  The idea that work on animals can apply on humans  Carefully executed research  We can measure behavior  It is observable and quantifiable  Enduring components  Treatment methods  Particularly for anxiety  Learning theories  Weak points  Overly simplistic view of human behavior  No evidence that improper learning indicated in etiology of disorders  Cognitive models  Reaction to behaviorism  Too simplistic  Ignores working mind (cognition)  Ignores free will  Cognition – the mental processing of stimuli  Basic tenet – abnormal behavior is a product of a mental functioning  Etiology of abnormal functioning  Results from problems with cognition  Negative emotions stem from negative thoughts  Illogical thinking processes  Inaccurate assumptions  Automatic thoughts  Maladaptive attitudes  Cognitive Therapies  Cognitive restructuring (Beck)  We try to alter the way the person views himself, the world, and the future  Rational emotive behavior therapy  Much more emphasis on the rational part  Techniques  Hypothesis testing  Disprove hypothesis  Reattribution training  Change the way somebody looks at the situation  Decatastrophizing  Talking about the worst case scenario and saying, is it really that bad?  Cognitive-Behavioral Model  Arose out of refinements in cognitive models  Behavior and cognition intertwined  Cognition as learned response (behavior)  Assessing the Cognitive Model  Groundbreaking contributions  Thoughts directly influence behavior and emotion  Enduring components  Cognitive techniques widely used in therapy  Numerous efficacious treatments  Proven to work  Multiple influences affect mental health  Weak points  Causality unclear


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.