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SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapter 2 Notes

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by: Kristy Trahan

SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapter 2 Notes SOCL 2001

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Sociology > SOCL 2001 > SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapter 2 Notes
Kristy Trahan

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Lecture/textbook notes Email me at if there are any questions.
Introduction to Sociology
T. Kazi
Class Notes
sociology, Introduction to Sociology, tasiakazi, SOCL2001Section6
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Kazi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan Chapter 2: Methods of Studying Sociology  Is sociology a science? o Hard to answer  Components of Scientific Theory o Concepts (dollars) o Variables (How much you earn)  When a concept has two or more degrees or values, they are called variables  Dollars is a concept; level of income is a variable  Marriage history is a concept; years married is a variable  Level of income and years married can vary, however dollars and marriage history are constant o Proposition (a statement about the nature of some phenomenon)  ‘Social activity is related to student grades’ o Hypothesis (when the proposition is formulated in a way that can be tested)  Hypotheses is derived from the proposition  ‘Students who attend more than one social activity per week have higher grade point averages than those who do not’ o Theory (you can test it)  A set of logically interrelated propositions that explains some process or set of phenomena in a testable fashion  What are the standards of scientific inquiry? o 1. Objectivity- to be biased free  Political, religious, racial, or other beliefs should not affect the results o 2. Replication- research conducted in such a way that someone else can duplicate it  Similar subjects and measuring procedures under similar conditions  This is another way to make sure there is no bias o 3. Precision of measurement- phenomenon being studied should be measured in precise, reliable, and valid ways  An ability to test or study anything (height, a religious practice, or a theory) is in large part dependent on the ability to measure it accurately o So is sociology a science?  It actually depends on how you do your study  Have to be very careful about your tools and techniques  Types of sociological research o Descriptive (HOW)- reliability and validity  Describes social reality or provides facts about the social world o Explanatory (WHY)- independent variable, dependent variable, intervening variable, and control variable  More concerned with the causation and how things happen  Independent variable- variable that is presumed to cause an effect  Causes of child abuse (stress, parents’ own abuse experiences)  Dependent variable- variable affected by the independent variable  The abuse itself SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan  Intervening variable  Father’s income positively affects son’s income o Through education  Father’s high income helps son achieve his educational goals, which in turn helps the son’s high income  The son’s income would be considered the intervening variable  Control variable  Verbal communication (independent) is critical with spouses  The more communication, the more marital satisfaction (dependent)  Marital satisfaction may be stronger among wives than husbands, making gender the control variable o Evaluation- measures how well a program or project works in relation to its goals  Sociological Research Method o 1. Qualitative  Observational research: laboratory observation, field observation, and participant observation  Researcher watches what is happening and makes no attempt to control, modify, or influence the ongoing activity  How did this happen? (conditions/processes)  Because of this policy, this and this happened o 2. Quantitative  Survey research: systematically asking people about their attitude, ideas, feelings, opinions, etc.  More based on quantity/amount o 3. Experimental Design  Another method- secondary analysis  Can take a newspaper and research something like how a hurricane was covered in the media and the recent Louisiana flood was not  Some argue that this is not good for sociological inquiry  Research Process o What are the steps?  1. Question/problem  2. Review the literature (ASA, AJS, Social Forces)- your sources  3. Develop a hypothesis  4. Designing your research- deciding how you want to go about it and see if your experiment is even doable  5. Collect your data- collect data based off your design (type of data)  6. Analyze data- reference your literature (cross reference) to strengthen your findings  7. Interpretation of findings  8. Publish findings Important terms in sociological method: -Population: the entire group (all high school students in Louisiana) -Sample: a subset of population (high school students from individual schools)


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