Hist 1210 Textbook Notes Ch.1
Hist 1210 Textbook Notes Ch.1 Hist 1210
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Brown on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1210 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Alan D. Meyer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Technology and Civilization I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Patterns of World History Ch.1 The African Origins of Humanity Prehistory --> 10,000 BCE Stone tools, jewelry, geometric features, rock drawings. Cultural beings: freedom from evolution, began creating their own history/evolution. The Origins of Humanity Fully evolved modern humans emerged in Africa around 100,000 years ago. Genetic modification due to constraints and opportunities offered by climate, environment, and genes. o Hominins: No Longer Chimps but Not Yet Humans Referring to East African hominins Hominin line split from the line of apes around 5 million years ago. Homo erectus: first hominin that left Africa for Eurasia Idea of prehistory: "History" begins with the rise of the first cities in Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE due to the beginning of written documents from scribes. Who Are Our Ancestors? Ardis (4.5-4.3 million years ago): able to walk upright on the ground for extended periods of time. After 200,000 years, Ardis were replaced by Australopiths. Australopiths (3.9-1.8 million years ago) "Lucy" skeleton find. Environmental Adaptability Bipedalism: the ability to walk upright on two feet. Seen as first human characteristic of hominins. More energy efficient and freed up the hands to perform other tasks such as carrying, etc. Being upright exposes less body surface to sun, which was important for hominins' venture from the rain forest into the savanna. There are more than a dozen known Australopith lines. Early hominin adaptations to the changing world later gave rise to diverse human cultures. On the Threshold of Humanity 2.5 million years ago, an Australopith line increased its brain power enough to make stone tools. Oldowan Toolmaking: splitting a stone in two pieces, producing sharp edges. Stone tools led to omnivorous hominins. Paleolithic: Old Stone Age (2.5 million - 11,500 years ago) Homo erectus was the first line to be stabilized on two feet and officially left the trees. Capable of walking long distances and mastered the control of fire. Campgrounds formed with around two dozen hominins residing. Brain size of homo erectus was half of the size of modern humans. Acheulian Toolmaking: flaking a hard rock on both sides to create a triangular shaped hand axe. 1.8-1.6 million years ago. "Out of Africa" theory being questioned regarding homo erectus due to the simultaneity of Acheulian tools in far-reaching areas. Very much possible that predecessors of the homo erectus species made the journey out of Africa. Also, possible non-African origin of homo erectus. Human Adaptations: From Africa to Eurasia and Australia Distinctions of homo sapiens: Rapidly developing technical skills Cultural creativity o The African Origins of Human Culture Homo sapiens emerged around 200,000 years ago in East Africa. "homo sapien" = "wise man" = "modern human" Livelihood Around 400,000 years ago, switched from scavenging to hunting due to the development of the spear Levallois Toolmaking: shaping a hard rock into a cylinder of cone first. "Forager" society: combination of hunting and gathering Spread of Obsidian marked the beginning of thousands of years of human interaction due to trade, etc. Gender Relations Dominant role of males emerged possibly at the same time as warring kingdoms emerged in the middle east. Due to spread of workload in hunter/gatherer societies, gender relations are thought to have been relatively equal. Creation of Symbols Parallel to improvements in stone tools was improvements in homo sapiens' mental life. Development of nonutilitarian objects This is the true distinction between humans and other animals. Homo sapiens were the first to think not only in concrete, practical terms but also in abstract symbolism. Abstract symbolism is the root of human capacity for art and other intellectual pursuits. Around 90,000 years ago, homo sapiens began burying their dead. This signifies the understanding of the concept of life and death, and potentially that of an afterlife. Migration from Africa Modern humans left Africa around 80,000-60,000 years ago. This began the journey/migration around the world, which lasted 70,000 years. o Migration from South Asia to Australia Since Australia is cut off from the rest of the world, societies there remained foraging up until the modern scientific/industrial age. Geography and Migration Though smaller area compared to rest of world, Australia extends across a variety of geographical zones. Settlement of the Continent Aboriginals: original settlers of Australia Bow and arrow emerged in south Africa around 64,000 years ago. Keen sense of exploiting nature by the use of forest fires, etc. Social Cultures and Social Expressions Formation of clans (groups of families) Typically monogamous marriage unless man was very rich and could support multiple wives. The Dreamtime Where the shaman constructs an imaginary reality of the lineage's roots, going back to when the world was created and the creator devised all customs, rituals, and myths. Aboriginal society remained stateless due to the inability to acquire wealth. Australian Rock Art Humans did not have to interact with each other to express themselves in similar ways (seen in similarity between Australian and European rock art). o Migration from Asia to Europe 30,000 year gap between leaving Africa and going to Europe. Neanderthals and Other Lines When homo sapiens arrived in Europe it was already inhabited by Neanderthals, who descended from a successor of homo erectus. Homo sapiens were seen as "intruders" of the land. Neanderthals were smaller and heavier boned than modern humans. Also showed evidence of a foraging livelihood, very similar to that of homo sapiens of the time. Due to a small amount of interbreeding before the Neanderthal line disappeared, 1-4% of homo sapien genome was the same as the Neanderthals. Rock Paintings and figurines: Knew how to rind and mix certain things to form different colors. The Ice Age Crisis and Human Migration to the Americas Modern humans have experienced 2 ice ages. o The Ice Age Difficult Living Conditions: Obvious malnutrition and disease. Domesticated the dog around 15,000 years ago. Homo sapiens possessed the intellect and tools to survive. Human mobility increased. Increased signs of trade. The Bering Land Bridge Southern rim only place early humans could survive. Migration to the Americas Speculation whether humans arrived 13,500 years ago or were in the Americas before. Paleoindians Transitional population which led to the Native Americans. Spirit Cave and Kennewick Man Putting It All Together Only 4% of evolution occurs from homo sapien fossil to the present day. The rest occurred in the "deep prehistory." Previous 10,000 years of development occurred so quickly and so effectively it is hard to understand from an evolutionary point of view. Early development was extremely slow. Principal reason for this was because foragers had to monitor population growth in their groups.
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