rough draft paper 1
rough draft paper 1 PolSci 40
Popular in Introduction to American Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecilia Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PolSci 40 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Professor Tausanovitch, C.N. in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American Politics in Political Science at University of California - Los Angeles.
Reviews for rough draft paper 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/31/16
Paper 1: Rough Draft Kurt Cobain sings in a famous Nirvana song “Come, as you are.” To a person with an intersex condition, this has a much broader meaning. You should not have to identify as male or female biology and society are far more complex than that . I the event of giving birth to a child with ambiguous genitals, I would allow zer to grow and consider surgery when ze is older in spite of the social stigma ze may face. Surgery on intersex babies is unnecessary and only serves to prolong a misogynistic, gendersocialized society. Like with any major surgery, there are risks involved. When presented with the choice to perform surgery on the ambiguous genitals of their newborn baby, it is in the best interest of the parents fully consider the lonterm effects surgery will have on the child. One of the biggest risks parents should be aware of is the fact that more often than not, these surgeries are not simple “one and done” procedures. In a study done in the UK, ”98%...needed further treatment to the genitalia for cosmeisis, tampon use, or intercourse… 89%...of genitoplasties planned as one stage procedures required further major surgery.” (THE LANCET. P124 125). By consenting to this surgery parents are signing their kids up for years of further surgeries, unnecessary treatments, hospital visits, and a feeling of abnormality/deformity from this notion of needing to be fixedwhich has proven to be very psychologically damaging. Furthermore, to this day there has never been an intersex person who underwent surgery and had a positive experience/outcome with it. The idea to perform surgery on intersex babies to “normalize” them was widely advocated by John Money (Film, Intersexion). Money claimed surgery on intersex babies was vital to their psychological health. He even went as far to say he “proved“ it. In a case where two twin boys were born and one had a botched penis, Money declared that “since there was no penis, she must be raised as a girl.” Articles were published praising Money’s successful ideology that “genitalia determines one’s sex.” Years later, however, the young girl found she identified as a male and changed her name to David. Later David committed suicide due to psychological trauma from the confusion, shame, and isolation that often comes along with people who undergo this intersex “normalization” surgery. As a parent I would be more concerned with the safety and peace of mind of my child than “normalization.” Even before becoming pregnant, parents should be aware of the possibility of their child having ambiguous genitals and understand that if they lack a specified gender, they are still a person nonetheless. Identifying as Male or Female does not make you a person. However, full disclosure: lacking a specified gender can be troublesome in contemporary Western society that is so acclimated to gender socialization the tendency for boys and girls to be socialized differently. As it has for many years, gender socialization begins even before a baby is born, perpetuated by baby shower themes, media messages, family expectations, and even jobs. According to a gender studies article by Lorber, “A Night to His Day”, the purpose of gender is to subordinate women to men? gender is a social institution that establishes a division of labor and creates and perpetuates gender inequality. Preves, another renowned gender scientist, articulates that the main motivation for genital surgery was to maintain social order for the institutions and adults surrounding these children. Hence, doctors “medicalize” the ambiguous genitals and treat them as medical issues. I agree that even today we accept and live with this dichotomy because it is just “how things have always been.” However, in recognizing it exists, perhaps society’s next move should be to change it .As evidenced above, an underlying societal pressure to sexually categorize everyone we come into contact with is still present today. This concept is known as a sex category. Sex categories are created and sustained through social interaction (Professor Saguy). “Designating someone as male/female based on identifactory displays” is impossible to “not do”. (West and Zimmerman “Doing Gender). It is sad to me that in daily interactions I find it necessary to assess someone’s gender if I am unable to do so I become confused and frustrated. According to Lorber, if we stopped “doing gender” then gender would not exist? “gender depends on everyone doing gender” (A Night to His Day, Lorber). I am committed to one day live in a world where “people are not genitals people have genitals” (Film, Intersexion). My opinion coincides with Anne Foster’s popular opinion in her article called “Sexing the Body” in that gender is psychological and susceptible to change? gender is not biological or social, but both . The statement that genitals biologically define us as male or female is simply untrue? surgeries today are so advance that biological sex only serves as a basis for who we decide to become. Take Caitlin Jenner for example. She was born male, raised male, and even lived as a male for the majority of her life. However, she refused to allow her biological sex she was assigned at birth define her, and underwent surgery to give her feminine genitalia. I believe gender assignment is a “social role that is reversible” (Professor Saguy). In addition, surgery on intersex babies perpetuates a misogynistic society because in the performance of these surgeries the surgeon removes the clitoris, the center of women sexual pleasure. In a study analyzing “The effect of clitoral surgery on sexual outcome in individuals who have intersex conditions with ambiguous genitalia” researchers found that “of the 39 women enrolled, 28 had been sexually active and all had sexual difficulties. The 18 women who had undergone clitoral surgery had higher rates of non sensuality (78%) and of inability to achieve orgasm (39%) than did the ten that had not had surgery” (THE LANCET Volume 361. Pages 1252 1257). Women sexuality has been and continues to be often suppressed because in our misogynistic society, femininity is seen as inferior (Professor Saguy). Another important fact to consider is that clotorechtemies are irreversible. Thus, later on if the person is upset they have no sexual sensation, they are never able to get it back. This is a devastating and unethical procedure that parents have no authority to make. An empowering point that is usually looked over is that ultimately in the presentation of ambiguous genitals the child is given a gift to one day choose what gender they identify as, if any. It is a choice that can only be made by the individual zerself. Research has shown that in cases where the parents and medical staff operated on a child as an infant, child, or adolescent, the person comes to resent the medical staff for advising their parents to have them undergo such an invasive surgery. Furthermore, most ambiguous genitalia surgeries involve the removal of the clitoris and the deepening/creation of a vagina as to allow for penetration and “normal sex one day with her husband”. Thus implying 1) ze will develop and identify as a female and 2) be heterosexual (Jessica Martinez, Discussion 1D). These are unfair, misogynistic approximations to impose on a new born baby. In conclusion, people are much more than the gender they identify with and/or their biological sex assignment. If my child were born with ambiguous genitalia I would allow zer to mature and consider surgery later when ze is older, despite the complicated gender socialization they may face. Surgery on intersex babies is unnecessary, harmful to their psychological health, and perpetuates a misogynistic society that should’ve ended eras ago.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'