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BIO 171 Anatomy, Week 1

by: Sarah Griffey

BIO 171 Anatomy, Week 1 BIO 171

Marketplace > Eastern Kentucky University > BIO 171 > BIO 171 Anatomy Week 1
Sarah Griffey
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About this Document

This is the introductory information that is basis for the weeks to come in anatomy.
Human Anatomy
Lisa Middleton
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Griffey on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 171 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Lisa Middleton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
CH. 1 ANATOMY Introduction  Anatomy: the study of structure  Not physiology, which is functional  There are 2 levels: 1. Microscopic  Can’t be seen by naked eyes  Cytology: cellular anatomy  Histology: tissues 2. Gross  Macroscopic  Can be seen by naked eye Anatomy and Disease  Pathologic: anatomic changes from disease  Radiographic: ultrasound, MRI, X-ray to study relationships between internal structures  Surgical: anatomic landmarks before and after surgery Structural organization of the body CHEMICAL  CELLULAR  TISSUE  ORGAN  ORGAN SYSTEM  ORGANISMAL Example: Atoms  Cell  Epithelial Tissue  Lung  Respiratory System  Human Living things: Try using GR ROAR M. I know its silly, but just think, “GRRR ROAR, EM!” This spells the 7 characteristics of living things:  Growth and development: the increase of size and function  Responsiveness: Responding to internal and external environment  Regulation: HOMOSTASIS consistent internal environment  Organization: Order to the complex structures  Adaptation: Altering oneself to gain long-term success  Reproduction: Produce new cells for growth, maintenance, repair, reproduce  Metabolism: Chemical reactions that breakdown ingested food, use cells energy to perform function, or contract/relax muscles to move body. Organ Systems Integumentary Skin, hair, glands Skeletal Bones, cartilage Muscular Muscles Nervous Central/ peripheral nervous system Endocrine Glands, hormones Cardiovascular Heart, blood, blood vessels Lymphatic Lymph nodes Respiratory Nose, throat, lungs Digestive Mouth, liver, stomach, intestines Urinary Kidney, bladder Reproductive Male, female Anatomic Position:  Feet on Floor  Head level  Eyes forward  Arms at side  Palms forward  Thumbs pointing out Planes and Directions:  Coronal: anterior/ posterior (front/ back)  Transverse: superior/ interior (upper/lower)  Midsagittal: equal right and left halves End of actual page content Directional Terms: Anterior/ Posterior: Front/ Back  /  Dorsal/ Ventral: Backside/ Bellyside (primarily spinal cord reference) Superior/ Inferior: Closer to head/ Closer to feet  /  Caudal: at rear or tail end (like an animal) Rostral: toward the nose (like an animal) Cranial: at the head end Medial/ Lateral: Toward midline/ Away from midline | / | Deep/ Superficial: inside/ outside (**) / *( )* Proximal/ Distal: closest to the point of attachment to the trunk/ furthest from the point of attachment from the trunk (attachment of limbs to body) Regional Anatomy  Two main regions 1. Axial region: Head, trunk, neck 2. Appendicular region: Limbs Body cavities and membranes Pariet Cranial cavity: houses brain Serous Vertebral canal: contains spinal cord FlViscer Ventral cavity: diaphragm splits into Hear  thoracic cavity  abdominopelvic cavity t  They are both lined with serous membranes  Parietal: lines internal surface of body wall  Visceral: lines external surface of the organ  Serous fluid: located between membranes inside cavities Thoracic cavity  Mediastinum: the thoracic cavity’s median space that contains the heart  The heart is furthered enclosed by the membrane pericardium  Thoracic cavity also contains the lungs  The serous membrane lining the lungs is called pleura  Abdominopelvic cavity  Separated by an imaginary line drawn across hip bones  Abdominal cavity: (superior) contains digestive organs, kidneys, ureters  Pelvic cavity: (inferior) contains large intestine, bladder, urethra, reproductive organs  The serous membrane is Peritoneum


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