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Bio 232 Week 1

by: Adrienne Covington

Bio 232 Week 1 Bio 232

Adrienne Covington
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These Notes Will cover what will be on our exam.
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Dr. Cockrell
Class Notes
The Human Body: An Orientation.




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrienne Covington on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 232 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Cockrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Coastal Carolina University.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Biology 232 Lecture Notes Chapter 1. The Human Body: An Orientation. I.  An overview of anatomy and physiology Anatomy­ The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another Physiology­ Describes the operation or function of structures of systems     A.  Topics of anatomy 1. Gross anatomy – regional, systemic and surface anatomy.  ­Describes structures visible to the naked eye a.) Regional anatomy­ One part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg) b.) Systemic anatomy­ Gross anatomy studied by organ system c.) Surface anatomy­ Study of internal structures as they relate to the skin  2. Microscopic anatomy – cytology and histology ­Describes structures not visible to the naked eye a.) Cytology­ Study of the cell b.) Histology­ Study of tissues 3. Developmental anatomy – embryology ­Describes changes that occur in the body throughout life a.) Embryology­ Study of developmental changes of the body before birth     B.  Topics of physiology – organs and organ systems       ­Physiology most often considers the operation of specific organs and/or organ  systems 1.) Renal physiology­ Kidney function 2.) Cardiovascular physiology­ Function of the heart and blood vessels            ­Physiology also focuses on cellular or molecular functions C.  Principle of complementarity of structure and function 1.) Form follows function a.) What a structure does explains its form b.) What a structure can do depends on its form ­Thus, anatomy and physiology are inseparable II. Levels of structural organization – chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal 1.) Chemical­ atoms combine to form molecules 2.) Cellular­ cells are made of molecules  3.) Tissue­ consist of similar types of cells 4/.) Organ­ Made up of different types of tissues 5.) Organ system­ consists of different organs that work together 6.) Organismal­ made up of the organ systems III.   Maintaining life  A.  Necessary life functions 1.  Maintaining boundaries­ internal environment remains distinct from external 2.  Movement­ locomotion, propulsion and contractility 3.  Responsiveness (Irritability)­ ability to sense changes and respond to them 4.  Digestion­ breakdown of ingested foodstuff 5.  Metabolism (anabolism and catabolism) a.) all chemical reactions that occur in the body b.) anabolism (building) and catabolism (breaking down) 6.  Excretion­ removal of wastes from the body 7.  Reproduction­ production of new cells or organisms 8.  Growth­ increase in size B.  Survival needs 1.  Nutrients­ chemical substances used in metabolism 2.  Oxygen­ needed for metabolic reactions 3.  Water­ necessary environment for chemical reactions 4.  Maintaining normal body temperature­ necessary for proper rates of chemical  reactions 5.  Atmospheric pressure­ required for proper rates of chemical reactions IV. Homeostasis­ The ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment a.) The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium  b.) chemical, thermal and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis A.  Homeostatic control mechanisms 1.) A change occurs in the variable (stimulus) 2.) A receptor monitors the environment and responds to the changes (stimuli) 3.) A control center analyzes the input and determines the necessary response 4.) An effector provides the response to the stimulus B. Two types of feedback mechanisms 1.) Negative feedback mechanisms a.) The output shuts off the original stimulus b.) Examples of this would be blood glucose levels and body  temperature 2.  Positive feedback mechanisms a.) The output enhances the original stimulus b.) Example of this would be blood clotting     C.  Homeostatic imbalance­ The disturbance of the body’s normal equilibrium  ­Most diseases are the result of homeostatic imbalance    V.  Organ systems of the body A. Integumentary system­ Composed of the skin, glands, hair and nails B.  Skeletal system­ Composed of bone, cartilage and ligaments C.  Muscular system­ Composed of muscles and tendons D.  Nervous system­ Composed of the brain, spinal cord and nerves E.  Cardiovascular system­ Composed of the heart and blood vessels F.   Lymphatic system­ Composed of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes and lymphoid  organs G.  Respiratory system­ Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and  lungs H.  Digestive system­ Composed of the oral cavity, gut and associated organs I.    Urinary system­ Composed of the ureters, bladder, and urethra J. Reproductive system­ Composed of glands (ovaries or testes) and associated  structures K.  Endocrine system­ Composed of glands that secrete hormones that regulate body  functions VI. Organ system interrelationships A) The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment B)  Digestive and respiratory systems take in nutrients and oxygen C)  Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the cardiovascular system D) Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems


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