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Week 1 Notes

by: Kelli Notetaker

Week 1 Notes XANTHRO 2AC

Kelli Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes contain the information from the first week of class
Introduction to Archaeology
Kent G Lightfoot
Class Notes
Intro to Archaeology




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to XANTHRO 2AC at University of California Berkeley taught by Kent G Lightfoot in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Anthro 2AC 8/29/2016   Read:  Deagan 91, Lightfoot 2005,  Schneider and Panich 2014 II. WHY STUDY ARCHAEOLOGY? 1.  Study of Ancient History (Prehistory) – studying the archaeological recorded before writing.  2.  Study of Recent History – Historical Archaeology or Historical Anthropology­ period of time  where written records are available. Historical anthropology combines all available assets  together (1960s) Question why bother with archaeology when you have historical records? It is very expensive.  Why not just read about the written records? If you don’t do it right you’ll just repeat what’s in  the records. Archaeology is complimentary to historical research. It is best to combine both.  A. Selective Representation of Past – Excluded Pasts; Africans and African­Americans – Kathleen Deagan’s work in Caribbean and American  South; Plantation Archaeology; Archaeology – can study both rich and poor; Study of  material culture of day­to­day lives; Traditional subject of history is the elite powerful  men and women. Written records are silence about everyday people (largely unrecorded). Archaeology can shed light on these people. Disenfranchised from history. She knows  they are key players in developments. Not much on the history of enslavement. Runaway  slaves allied with people and created camps and were not written about. Archaeologists  are filling the gaps. Southern archaeologist studies the life ways of slaves. Common  people are usually left from history. Obtain a wealth amount of info from living space,  tools, and food.  B. Biases of Historical Record   Earliest Written Accounts of Native Americans by Literate European Men; tend to emphasize bizarre and strange customs; Sometimes  even intentionally distort the past. Recorded by outsiders. Educated, wealthy, and  articulate European males recorded earliest written accounts.  Interpreted history from  upper class Europeans. Looking at the culture with a bizarre and strange view.  Contempory history analysis is based on people who wrote them and what was the  worldview of these people writing these accounts. Some writers intentionally distorted  observations to hide events, make them higher, and for religious purposes.    C. Case Study of Colonial California; Spanish and Russian Colonizers Franciscan Missions, Colony Ross (Fort Ross) Used Native Californians as Laborers  But Employ Different Policies and Practices­ established in 1769­1830s. Established 21  missions and 4 military bases. Thousands of native people were brought into these  missions. Often romanticized. Don’t have a lot of info on the native people. Few  paintings showing these missions. Russian colonization is less well known. They came t  California in 1812 from Alaska and established the Russian frontier. Russian in the north. Main settlement was the Ross Settlement. Russian was here from a company to make  money. They were hunting sea animals (sea otters: decimated the population in California and traded the fur to China). Native Alaskans hunted these sea animals and Russians  employed the natives for their colonial enterprise. Both colonial systems used natives as  inexpensive labors. Spanish they had a theology based system to civilize to Christianize  and civilize them. Russians didn’t care what they did they just used them for money and  labor.    Surprisingly Little Written about Native Workers And When Written Often Skewed or  Biased Emphasize Primitiveness­ Franciscans viewed the world as medieval christen  theology. The Russian merchants they wrote about natives about how they worked. The  writings tend to emphasize the primitive side. They said they didn’t do agriculture and  talked about how women looked and the bizarre religion practices and their crappy  houses. Written accounts can be useful but got to be careful in how you use them.  Archaeology can play a key world in this subject and provides another independent data  set to compare other records to.    Archaeology – provides Independent Data Set Can Help “Democratize the Past”­ can  determine the inconsistencies between records. Offers another window into the past.  Democratize he past by looking at the whole thing. Also bring in oral traditions.  Historical Archaeology/Historical Anthropology Employ Multiple Lines of Evidence­  based on a whole series of evidence and can obtain a better understanding.  Schneider and Panich 2014  Archaeology of Native Places in Missions­ missionaries emphasized a authoritarian rule.  Missions were portrayed as missions being like prisons. Native people couldn’t leave  mission after being baptized. Padres attempted to eliminate the native traditions. Natives  were essentially losing their culture and became extinct. Painted a different picture for the native’s past. Native people lived in a row of apartment like rooms. Archaeologists have  exacted these rooms.  Neophyte Quarters of Spanish Missions­ mission San Antonio. Paved rooms containing  native technology and maintaining their native characteristics. I.E found shell beads and  bird bone tubes for religion practices, lithic (stone) tools. There is a much more broad  network of people, and lots of fish/animal remains. Provides very different perspective from Franciscan Accounts­ previous studies of  missions don’t jive what they find archaeologically. Emphasizes the authoritarian rule of  the missions. Wanted to turn natives into a peasant class of Catholics but natives were  found to keep up their traditions. Wanted to turn them into farmers but natives still  hunted/gathered. Archaeology shows that past traditions were being kept up in their room even though missions see them as a great change.  Archaeological evidence of Native religious Practices; Native peoples still hunting and  Gathering; Native peoples maintain exchange connections outside missions; Native  Cultures Did not Go Extinct! – beginning to reevaluate they written accounts and finding  different contradictions.  D.   Study of Contemporary World Case Study: Archaeology of the Hippies (1960s) Olompali State Park, Breck Parkman Anthro 2AC 8/26/2016  Read:  Ashmore + Sharer; Lightfoot + Parrish 2009; Erlandson and Rick 2015  I. INTRODUCTION 1. Anthropology (sub­fields) a) Archaeology (anthropological archaeology)- fields that studies human kind. Takes a holistic approach. b) Cultural Anthropology (Ethnography) c) Linguistic Anthropology­ study of origin, structure, and cultural context of languages d) Biological Anthropology (Bioarchaeology) - study of human biological variations. Studies human and human relatives. Study of primates. 2.  Archaeological Training a) Anthropological Archaeology b) Classical Archaeology­ combines methods of archaeology and in classical languages and  history c) Prehistoric Archaeology (prehistorians)(Britain)­ where you are being trained is the core  oh what is emphasized in lecture 3.  Archaeological record­ consists of material remain or culture left by past people that is able to be recovered and interpret a) Material Remains, Material Culture­ archaeology can be defined as the study of the  human past through its material remains (page 10) II.  WHY STUDY ARCHAEOLOGY? 1.  Study of Ancient History (Prehistory) A.  Written Records No Earlier than 5000 Years Prehistoric Archaeology, Native Oral Traditions­ limits to the very recent past. No  written records from 5,000 years ago.  Two ways to study prehistoric archaeology  (pg 15) most represented by this period.  99% of human kind past is represented by this period B.  Dichotomy Between Prehistory and History Prehistory – People Without History?­ based on written documents. People with writing  are associated with real history.  “Excluded Past” ­­ Ancient History vs. Prehistory­ ancient history not studied because no  documented and didn’t have a formal writing system. Native Americans history not  known till people came over. People tend to think people don’t have history because they  aren’t written down. Pre histories are people with no real histories. They feel that this is  demining term and suggest that they don’t have history. Prefer to use ancient histories.  Sometimes called pre colonial. Native Americans have a long complex history­taking  place before writing and Europeans. Can be studied using oral traditions or archaeology.  C.  Case Study – Native California – How Long People Have Lived in California? Took different migration models  beginning at the end of the ice age. Maritime migration routes of ancient sea bearing  people going down Japan and South Asia. Follow the kelp highway. Came here around  15000­17000 years ago. Very little evidence of big game hunting –Where are Earliest Archaeological Sites in California? Found around Coastal California. Channel Islands. Date back to around 13,000 years ago oh sophisticated societies. All  shell remains dating back thousands of years back. No big game kill sites but found  evidence of maritime people.  Early Migration Routes from Asia to Americas a)  Clovis or Paleo­Indian people – across Beringia Land Bridge – end of Pleistocene Big Game Hunters: over 100 different languages spoken. Everything based on  speices and agriculture in the area b)  Ancient Sea Faring People Along North Pacific Rim – Follow the “Kelp Highway” Earliest Dated Archaeological Sites – circa 13,000 BP Early Sites: Arlington Springs, Daisy Cave, Eel Point Over 13,000 years or more – development of highly sophisticated societies Most Densely Populated area North of Mexico Great Linguistic Diversity Complex Hunter­Gatherers  Villages Landscape Management Practices  Increase Biodiversity, Decrease Firestorms ANTHRO 2AC Notes 74 BARROWS Wednesday August 24 Goals of the class: 1. Theories and methods of archaeology (based on material things). Interpretation of past people. 2. Concept of excluded past a) What’s recorded b) Members of different groups and who is persecuted c) Examining material culture of daily practices (different traditions) 3. Emphasis the anthropology of California a) Construction and history of native California b) Colonialism in San Fran bay c) Missions d) Archaeology of Hippies Office hours: Monday 10:30-11:30, Wednesday 1:30-3:30 BCOURSE MATERIAL LECTURE OUTLINE (ON TEST) See syllabus for other requirements


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