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Week 1

by: Shira Clements

Week 1 KNES 293

Shira Clements
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About this Document

Beginning of History of Ameircan Sports
History of Sport in America
Michael Friedman
Class Notes
Kinesiology, knes293, history, Sport




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shira Clements on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KNES 293 at University of Maryland taught by Michael Friedman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
8-29-2016 History of Sports in America Introduction- - Athletes (Mohammed Ali) was able to get away with so much more in the past, but now they are criticized for not standing up during the national anthem o Now athletes have a positive light and look to a bright future, as opposed to before - How and why sport matter? o Things changes o Continue to endure o Ali matters because sport matters—he was part of politics, science, and more- shaped it  Historically and contextually grounded- moved into mainstream American culture and made other athletes follow - Physical culture- o Rather than just focus on sport, it will examine the many physical movement practices, physical activity, exercise, health, and dance o Connects physical culture and health o Dynamic window into politics, economic structures, gender, race, class formation, ideology, and virtually any other topic o History changes- things are more important now and less important  History didn’t change, but the importance does - Understanding Mohammed Ali: o Politics – race and gender  Power and resistance o Economics- unions and banks o Geography- drugs and cold war o Scientific Sport and physical culture are related. Society full on impacts the physical culture and vice versa (Ali impacted our society) - Two way and mutually reinforcing relationship between the two entities - Sport and physical culture are both products and reinforces (coexist) with society! 8­31­16 Lecture 2 Louis Sockalexis: ­ first native American to play in major league with the Cleaveland Spiders in 1897 ­ In June, he was hitting .417 and recognized as having great potential ­ Some sports writers started calling the team the “Indians” ­ He begins to have injuries and became an alcoholic (fueled by racist taunting)  lead to his speedy decline and his release in 1899 ­ In 1901, Cleveland received a team in the new American League ­ Nicknamed the Naps after star second baseman Napoleon Lajoie. Lajoie was  traded in 1914, which necessitates a new name for 1915. ­ In 1915, the name of the Cleveland team was changed to the Cleveland Indians  and states that the choice is temporary (they’ll come up with something else in the future). Sockalexis was never mentioned ­ 1972: American Indian movement becomes very active ­ They not only dislike native American names being used, but this image  (Cleveland Indains) is particularly offensive. The Cleveland management sits  down and decides to respond that they named the team after Sockalexis, in honor  of him. The practice of history: ­ Examine the relationship between power and knowledge in historical practice ­    Discuss what makes for ‘good history’ ­    Define the ‘long residuals’ as this course focuses on understanding the  continuities and discontinuities between the present and the past  Knowledge, Power, and Historical Practice “History will be knid to me for I intend to write it” Winston Churchill ­ Great people write history in and through their deeds. Churchill, not only  impacted the development of history, he was a professional history writer. ­ He was educated to become a national leader ­ Prominent politician form 1900­1964 ­ First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of WWI ­ Prime minister during WWII ­ Churchill’s main source of income came from writing – published more than 40  books and thousands of newspaper articles ­ He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953. History as Objective Knowledge ­ ‘History is written by the victors’ ­    All knowledge comes from the perspective of the writer/presenter. It isn’t neutral  or objective because it cannot be. We cannot divorce ourselves from the context  of which we come out of and talk about these ‘objective facts’. ­    History is interpretation. It comes from somebody. ­    History is . . . o A highly subjective discipline o Highly politicized o Bound with power relations o History cannot be separated from the conditions of the production o History changes 1    It isn’t an accurate depiction of what happened in the past, but are stories about  the past told from contemporary points of view and speak to contemporary  concerns History as a contested Terrain ­ Contested terrain­ different groups struggle to define and redefine the meagnings  of the past, social contrsutcts, and cultureal practices Collective Memory ­ As different groups tell and retell stories about the past, they are helping to  construct what Halbwachs (1985) termed “collective memory.” The ability to  influence and shape collective memory is a source of considerable social power.  ­ The past doesn’t change, but the interpretations and the stories change o Who does this and what comes from it does matter ­ Facts happened, but history is a contrcutiorve story about the facts and how we  use the facts o Louis Sockalexis: Cleveland Indian  ­Facts  ▯ –  He was a Native American  ▯ –  He played for the Cleveland baseball team in the 1890s  ▯ –  He was a player of extraordinary talent & promise  1 –  Newspapers nicknamed the team the “Indians” while  Sockalexis played for them  1              ­ “History” (but not “fact”)  ▯ 1                         – The Cleveland baseball team was  named “Indians” in  1914 to honor him  Invented Traditions  ­ According to Hobsbawm (1983), an invented tradition is “a set of practices,  normally governed by overtly or tacitly accepted rules and of a ritual or symbolic  nature, which seek to inculcate certain values and norms of behaviour by  repetition, which automatically implies continuity with the past” (p. 1).  Amateurism ­ The English upper­class cited Ancient Greece as the model for the development  of sport. They argued that the Greeks participated in sport for its own sake  ­ An invented tradtion­  o However, there was no tradition or even a concept of amateurism  in Ancient Greece, where athletes accepted large prizes for their  victories and participation.  ­ Amateurism & the Cleveland Indian o As we we take a critical approach to the histories of sport and physical  activity, the important question is to ask how, by whom, and for what  purposes the (hi)stories about Sockalexis and amateurism were created  Popular Media Texts ­ “Popular media construct our contemporary folklore, our cultural memory, no  matter if the stories they tell fail to coincide with the existing record... Much of  the public learns its history from the movies and tends to regard factual errors as  ‘the truth.’” (Schultz, 2014, p. 30).  Corporate Versions of the Past  ­ According to Sanello, “commercial imperatives most often fuel cinematic rewrites of history. Complex economic and social issues are pureed into easily digestible  bits of information intended for consumption by Hollywood’s most sought­ after  demographic: the lowest common denominator” (a s quoted in Schultz, 2014, p.  39).  Historical Evidence  ­ As we examine the past, we need to recognize not only the intentions and biases  of those creating it, but there are different types of historical evidence:  o Primary Sources­ directly associated with topic­ documents are physical  objects from the time. They were present during an experience and offer  first hand view. RAW DATA, use it to get as close to event as possible o Secondary Sources­ gives the perspective of time and gives the bigger  picture, books or articles written by others who are not directly associated  with the event, involve degree of filtering that lessens value­ maybe have  primary source in them  Substantial variation in their quality and reliability and it is your  responsibility to use high quality sources.  The Long Residuals ­ Lives are lied ford byt history is looked at it backward ­ All the information is there but we just have to put it together ­ It is easy to look backward to come up with conspiracy ­ we try to understand the discontinuities and continuities as the practices and  institutions of sport and physical activities have changed to make a picture ­ Although the current moment may appear different from the past, we will be  examining the multitude of relationships and legacies existing between the past  and the present.  ­ This will allow us to aunderstand why things changed and why things stayed  steady Hoe can we understand the practive of prayer after touchdown ­ Ancient Greece o Sports were a form of worship  ­ Sport in Mesoamerica o Numerous cities had ball courts in which they played localized versions of the “Mesoamerican ballgame.” As some cultures practiced human  sacrifice, players were occasionally offered to the gods  ­ Vice in the Industria City o During the 19 century, cities began growing rapidly as factories offered  employment and opportunities. Large numbers of young men migrated to  these cities and many became involved in a tavern­centered culture that  included volunteer fire companies, theaters, gambling halls, and bordellos. ­ Physical Culture as a Tool of Moral Instruction  o As sport appealed to the masses of young men, reformers with the  YMCA and other organizations believed they could use physical  activities 


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