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PUR3000 Ch.2 The Evolution of PR

by: Anna Cappelli

PUR3000 Ch.2 The Evolution of PR PUR3000

Marketplace > University of Florida > PUR3000 > PUR3000 Ch 2 The Evolution of PR
Anna Cappelli
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These notes cover both the class lecture and the textbook reading notes needed for quiz 1
Principles of Public Relations
Class Notes
Public, relations
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Cappelli on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PUR3000 at University of Florida taught by Kong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
CH.2 The Evolution of PR Lecture 4 models of PR press agentry/publicity (1840-1900) propaganda & publicity, one-way, truth not essential, source – receiver, little, counting, P.T Barnum, sports/theatre/entertainment, 15% public information (1900-1920s) disseminate information, source-receiver, little; readability, readership, Ivy Lee, government/nonprofits, 50% two-way asymmetric (1920-present) scientific persuasion, two-way imbalanced effects, source-receiver, formative, evaluative of attitudes, Edward Bernays, competitive business, agencies, 20% two-way symmetric (1960s-present) mutual understanding, two-way, balanced effects, group-group, formative, evaluative of understanding, Arthur Page/educators/professionals, regulated business/agencies, 15% PR in the 19 thC Age of the press agent PT Barnum and pseudo-events Although not ethical (used bribery and exaggerations to garner attention), some aspects of PR have roots in press agentry Used in publicity and promotion to populate the western world Roots of PR PR efforts change form just hype to facts and information Edward Bernays, first person to call himself PR counsel, also taught first course in PR at NYU Father of modern PR PR has no identifying founder, though many credit Ivy Lee as first practitioner of PR, or first PR counselor 1964- Harvard first fundraising brochure 1758- Columbia University first press release 1900- Publicity Bureau, first PR agency opened creel committee and office of war information adaptation of PRSA code of ethics in 1954 first PR firm: The Publicity Bureau – established in 1900 first client: Harvard University first in-house PR: Westinghouse helped market/promote use of alternative current battle of the currents between Westinghouse and Edison Torches of Liberty Women and smoking propaganda The first world war changed all notions of traditional gender roles – with men away at war, women were forced to move out of the home an into the workplace The 1920s were a time of intense movement demanding equality for women Key PR figures Phineas T Barnum Ivy Lee Edward Bernays Doris Fleischman 2 Arthur Page Rex Harlow: father of PR research Major developments that influence PR Global economy Environment Increased management role Increased issues management Increased crisis management Proliferation of publics Fragmented media New media technology More one to one communication International relations Higher priority on internal communication Professionalism of the field Classic Campaigns Edward Bernays 1923 – Ivory Soap Consumer research: no scent and pure Focused on its purity and ability to float Created the carving contest Why was it successful – the reason why targeting children? Give what the consumers want Based on research Create the new consumption of the soap through carving event Children took showers once a week so if taking showers once a day, how much soap sales could be increased? 3 Using purity and soft concept Today’s PR Increasing the importance of intercultural communication The principles of PR in each country vary to some extent because of different cultural characteristics In global markets like today, without understanding other cultures, PR cannot be successful Remember PR is communication and relationship management function Communication is a receiver phenomenon Without understanding who our audiences are, PR for any purpose will fail CH.2 The Evolution of PR Textbook The Roman Catholic Church was major practitioner of PR throughout the middle ages by using stages events, propaganda, and symbolism to persuade thousands to follow during the Crusades. The printing press was also developed during middle ages which profoundly influenced gathering and distribution of information PR played large role in American independence – Sam Adams “the father of press agentry” Tom Paine’s Common Sense Hamilition’s Federalist Papers 4 1800s was a period of growth and expansion in US and golden age of press agent – also age of hype which is the shrewd use of the media and other devices to promote an individual, cause, or even a product/service individual who best represents hype and press agentry is Phineas T Barnum, the great American Showman Edward Bernays Believed PR should emphasize the application of social science research and behavioral psychology to formulate campaigns and messages that could change people’s perceptions and encourage certain behaviors Ivory soap, “torches of liberty,” and light’s golden jubilee Other pioneers George Creel- persuaded newspapers/magazines to contribute news to encourage Americans to save food and invest heavily in liberty bonds Arthur Page- credited with establishing the concept that PR should have an active voice in higher management – corporate PR Benjamin Sonnenberg- “most influential publicist of the mid- twentieth century” Rex Harlow – “father of PR research” and first fulltime PR educator Leone Baxter – credited with founding the first political campaign management firm in the US Warren Cowan – one of first firms to serve the movie industry in 30s Eleanor Lambert - credited with putting American designers on the map when Europeans dominated the industry Elmer Davis- mounted a PR effort to promote the sale of war bonds, obtain press support for wartime rationing, encourage 5 planting of “victory gardens” and spur higher productivity among American workers to win the war Moss Kendrix – credits with being first African American to acquire a major corporate account, Coca-Cola Company Major Contributions by Industrialists, Presidents Henry Ford –America’s first major industrialist and among first to use two basic PR concepts Samuel Insull- created a monthly customer magazine, issued a constant stream of news releases, and even used film for PR purposes – he started the “bill stuffer” by inserting company information into customers’ bills Teddy Roosevelt – master of promoting and publicizing his pet projects. First president to make extensive use of news conference and press interviews to drum up public support when congress was resistant The booming economy after world war II produced rapid growth in all areas of PR Reasons for PR expansion: Major increases in urban/suburban populations The growth of a more impersonalized society, represented by big business, big labor, and big government Scientific and technological advances, including automation and computerization The communications revolution in terms of mass media Bottom-line financial considerations often replacing the more personalized decision making of a previous, more genteel society 6 Two-way communication – there’s balance between the organization and its various publics – can influence each other The 1970s was an era of reform in the stock market and investor relations The most dramatic change between 1950-2000 was the transformation of PR from a male dominated field to a female dominated one Latest development is the advent of social media Other current developments: A multicultural world Recruitment of minorities Public demand for transparency Expanded role for PR Corporate social responsibility Increased emphasis on measurement Managing the 24/7 news cycle Continued growth of digital media Outsourcing to PR firms The need for lifelong professional development 7


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