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Cognitive Neuroscience Wk 1

by: Yesenia Notetaker

Cognitive Neuroscience Wk 1 NSC 4359

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > Neuroscience > NSC 4359 > Cognitive Neuroscience Wk 1
Yesenia Notetaker
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A Brief History of Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Dr. Karen Rodrigue
Class Notes
cognitive, neuroscience




Popular in Cognitive Neuroscience

Popular in Neuroscience

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yesenia Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NSC 4359 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Karen Rodrigue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Neuroscience at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
08/25/16 CH1 – A Brief History of Cognitive Neuroscience  What is Cognitive Neuroscience  Relatively new field of study that was only formally named in the late 1970s  Combines the study of cognition (process of knowing) and neuroscience (study of the nervous system)  Goal: to understand how the functions of the physical brain are associated with mental processes and yield the output of the mind  Brain vs Mind  What is the difference?  How are they related?  The brain: history of the physiological approach  Origins of modern cog neuro date back to the 1600s and much earlier  Aristotle (384-322 bc) - heart was seat of mind and soul  Galen (130-200ad) – "spirits" flowed through ventricles of brain  Descartes (1630s) - pineal gland was seat of soul  Willis (1664) - beginning of modern view that the brain is responsible for mental functions  1621 - 1675  Cerebral cortex might be the center of what makes us human  Coined the term neurology (among others)  Compared behavior in life with brain structure at death  Compiled detailed drawings of brain anatomy with Christopher Wren  Circle of Willis  19 century  Period when modern approach to science (observation, manipulation) began to be applied to the study of the brain  Key question: does the brain work as a whole unit to enable mental processing? Or does the brain operate in a specialized fashion to enable the mind?  Willis' ideas were a launching pad for further work. Notably neuroanatomist Franz Joseph Gall expanded Willis' ideas  Proposed that brain was the origin of the mind and that out mental abilities could be localized in specific regions of the cortex  Localizationist view  specific mental processes are localized in circumscribed brain areas  Phrenology  Lead by franz gall (1758-1828)  Initial named "cranioscopy" or "anatomical personology"  Renamed "phrenology by Johann Spurzheim  Aggregate field theory  Brain is undifferentiated  Contrary to localizationist views  The whole brain participates in behavior  Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens  Lesioned brains in animals  Animals recovered function, regardless of the lesion site.  Localization again  Paul Broca  Patient M. Leborgne, aka tan  Suffered a stroke  Aphasia: could comprehend speech but only say tan  Lesion in the left inferior frontal lobe  Broca's area – speech production  Carl Wernicke  Stroke patient  Freely produces words  Incomprehensible  Lack of comprehension  Wernicke's area – language comprehension areas  Mapping the brain -> atlas  Korbinian Broadmann  German neuroanatomist  Used nissl stain  Identified cytoarchitechtonics: cellular architecture -> cellular composition  Classifies into 52 regions  'Broadmann areas'  Still used in modern neuroscience today  Advances in neuronal visualization -> aggregate view  Camillo Golgi  Developed the famous silver stain to visualize entire individual neurons  He argued that the brain was a continuous mass of tissue that shared a common cytoplasm  Santiago Ramon y Cajal  Father of modern neuroscience  Used Golgi's stain to determine that neurons are distinct units  Argued for the neuron doctrine  Nervous system is made from discrete cells  Discovered direction (unidirectional)  Discovered electricity travels  Golgi and Cajal shared a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1906  History of cognitive neuroscience  Purjinke -> Purkinje cells  Inhibitory neurons in cerebellum -> large!  Herman Hermholtz  Advanced neural science through invention of a device to measure velocity of nerve conduction  First to identify that information was sent through the nervous system by active electric currents  People thought it was a passive byproduct of brain function  Localization vs aggregate view  During this time of early discovery about the neuron, localization views dominated  Localization views were eventually modifies to acknowledge that individual parts of the brain may work in a cooperative and dependent fashion  These different approaches are still seen in science today.  Both are necessary for a full understanding of the brain and mind  The study of parts vs whole  Scientists began to realize that the physiological research on neurons and brains structures need to be understood in the context of the whole  Early research on the mind and behavior emerged our of philosophical approaches as well as experimental psychology  Philosophical approaches: from the body to the mind  Before experimental psychology study of the mind was the domain od philosophers  A major line of thought at the time was  Associationism: the sum if a persons experiences determines the course of mental development  Closely tied to the school of psychological thought known as behaviorism  The idea that the environment and learning are the most important factors in development  John Watson  Pioneer of behaviorism  Little albert  B. F. skinner  Operant conditioning -> stimulus response psychology  Reward vs punishment  Environmental manipulations can train/discourage responses  George A. Miller  Originally a behaviorist  Gradually changed his views  Psychology, the science of mental life  The magical number seven, plus or minus 2  brought concept of working memory to the forefront  Linguistic work  Language and communication  The psychology of communication  Collaborated with Noam Chomsky  Credited as father of cognitive neuroscience  Noam Chomsky  Focused on language  Father of modern linguistics  Focused on language acquisition  Showed that associationsim and behaviorism could not explain how we acquired language  The pace of language acquisition is too rapid for skinner type of mechanisms  Played a key role in the shift away from behaviorism  Scientific approach  From the Mid 1950s-1970s it became clear tat approaches of physiology, philosophy, neuropathology, or experimental psychology alone could not explain all learning and behavior  George Miller and others (Gazzaniga) set out to understand how the brain and mind work as an integrates whole with a unitary scientific approach which eventually led to  Cognitive neuroscience!  The integration of the study of the parts and the whole that enable the mind  Empirical and evidence based field of study; theories are continually being revised and updated  Both physiological and psychological approaches are necessary to achieve the scientific aims of cognitive neuroscience research  Tools  Development of imaging technologies are critical to the early development and progress of cognitive neuroscience  Electroencephalograph (EEG)  Computerized axial tomography (CAT)  X-ray, no 3d  To temporal resolution  Positron emission tomography (PET)  Metabolism  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  Static picture  Detailed tissue  Functional MRI  Real time!  Cognition and brain function at the same time  Paul Lauterbur  Won the 2003 Nobel Prize for his contributions that led to invention of the fMRI scanner


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