Chapter 16 Notes
Chapter 16 Notes History 1112
Popular in Survey of Modern World History
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Shane Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Survey of Modern World History in History at Clayton State University.
Reviews for Chapter 16 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/31/16
History 1112 Notes Chapter 16 Inclass Notes/ Reading Notes: th Ottoman Empire established by a group of Turks in the late 13 century under the leadership of Osman (12801360). This group expanded their territories and founded the Osmanli dynasty. Others found that this sounded like ‘Ottoman’, which stuck and is how they got their name. Ottoman rule proved to be more tolerant and beneficial than the previous empire of Byzantine. Byzantine Empire controlled much of the land between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. They, however, where weakened by the sack of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade of 1204. Orkhan I (13261360) led the Ottoman Turks in attack across the Bosporus and into the Balkans. Beys from the Turkish word ‘beg’ meaning ‘knight’, this was a term for Turkish governors who collected taxes from the local Slavic peasants. Sultan Turkish term for ruler or king of the domain. Murad I (13601389) son of Orkhan I who succeeds in power after his death, who reduced the Byzantine Empire to a vassal. His military forces were composed mostly of janissaries. With these Murad defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. Janissaries from the Turkish word ‘yeni cheri’ meaning ‘new troops’, this was a term used to describe a group of Christians who were recruited by the Ottomans to serve in their military. They converted these recruits to Islam and trained them as foot soldiers. Provided protection for the palace as well as aid in extending the empire. Bayazid I (13891402) successor of Murad, advanced the empire northward. His reign is marked by victories of the French and a defeat by the Mongols. He set the stage for the siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Holy Roman Empire. Mehmet II (14511481) succeeded the throne following Bayazid. Captured Constantinople which led to it’s fall in 1453 subsequently leading to the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Suleyman I ‘The Magnificent’ (15201566) led Turks to seize Belgrade in 1521, gained victory of Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs, and expanded the empire to Vienna Lepanto location of Turkish defeat by Spanish in 1571. The Spanish destroyed a Turkish fleet which stunted the empire dominion over the Mediterranean and left them to stay on the southern shores. Siege of Vienna 1683 Ottomans laid siege to Vienna and Hungarians but were meet with resistance and pushed out of Hungary. Harem the private dominion of the Sultan. A woman’s place within the harem depended on the ability to birth a male heir. The women were often slaves, but were educated and trained and often exercised influence. Unlike popular belief, few of theses women were used as sex slaves to the Sultan. Devshrime term for system in which women of the harem were trained. Originates in the practice of requiring clan leaders to provide slaves to the Sultan as tax. Grand vizier the chief minister, acts as a gobetween for the Sultan and his councilors. Sipahis officials who garnered taxes from peasants in their fiefdom. Millet administrative unit of each religious minority. Each group had their own patriarch or priest who dealt with government. Shari ‘a Islamic law. Provinces and districts governed by officials who combined civil and military functions. These officials were appointed by the Sultan who had assigned land to them. They came to reach a high level of authority within their provinces. Ottoman Religion and Society The Ottoman ruling elites were Sunni Muslims. The sultan claimed the title of caliph and had to uphold the Shari ‘a law. Sunni Muslims made up the majority of Turkicspeaking people within the empire, however some practices other doctrines like Sufism. NonMuslims within the society were tolerated and left to practice their religion. They did have to pay a head tax to compensate for being exempt from military service. As far as social classes go, the Ottomans placed Islamic Turks in charge. Women were subservient to men but not completely slaves. They were treated fairly and were considered as minors on the same level as children. Decline of the Ottomans The decline of the Ottoman Empire began with the Battle of Carolwitz in 1699. The administrative system began to break down, changes were being made to the devshrime system, and there was corruption within the empire. Material affluence, western influence, and a series of weak rulers also contributed to their decline. Ottoman Art Art in the Ottoman empire centered around pottery, rugs, textiles, arms, armor, and calligraphy, with rugs being the most notable. In Ottoman architecture there is the Hagia Sophia and Suleyman Mosque in Istanbul which started as a Christian church but was later used as a mosque. The Ottomans also made marks in tiles and mosaics and in the silk industry. The Safavids Muslims who were not ethnically Muslim. Their empire was to the east of the Ottoman empire, was centered in the ancient civilization of Persia, which is now Iran, and lasted about 200 years. The state language within the empire was Farci (?). Shah Ismail (14871524) founder of the Safavid Empire and claimed to be a descendant of Ali the fourth imam of the Muslim faith. He was a Sufi Muslim and seized much of Iraq and Iran during his reign around 1501. Ismail sent Shi’ite preachers to Anatolia to promote rebellion among Turkish tribes. Shah Abbas (15871629) Second ruler of the Safavid empire. Was forced by the Ottomans to sign a punitive peace which loss the empire much of it’s territory. The empire, however, reached it’s peak under his reign. He built up the empire’s military and attempted to gain back lost land but was not successful. Decline of Safavids After the death of Shah Abbas, the empire was strong for a while but then was plagued by a series of militant rulers who curtailed freedoms previously enjoyed by citizens. The Ottomans began to seize territories along the western border and the empire collapsed in 1723. Mughals (Gunpowder Empire) a group of Muslims that establish the Mughal empire which is centered in India. Founders of this empire were not natives of India, the originated in the region north of the Ganges River. The culture within the empire was mostly Islamic with Persian and indigenous influences. There is a mix of Hindus and Muslims. Women within this empire were heavily controlled by traditions and customs like purdah and sati. Sati a practice where when a man dies it is expected that the widower of that man would throw herself on his burning body and commit suicide. This practice was done away with with the rule of Europeans. Purdah women in the Mughal empire were barred from associating with men outside of the home. Barbur (14831530) founder of the Mughal Empire, descendant of great Asian conqueror Tamerlane. He inherited part of Tamerlane’s empire and in 1517 crossed the Khyber Pass into India. He and his army captured Delhi in 1526 and thus gained control of the northern plains. Humayun (15301556) son of Barbur and successor to the throne. He was forced to flee to Persia in 1540 and lived in exile for 16 years. Eventually, with aid, he returned and recaptured Delhi in 1555. He died the following year. Akbur (15561605) took the throne at the age of 14. Under his rule the empire expanded from the Himalaya Mountains to the Godavari River. He practiced religious tolerance and created a new form of worship called the Divine Faith (DiniIlahi). Zamindars local officials who accumulated considerable power, acted as governors within the empire. Divine Faith (DiniIlahi) faith where subjects worship the emperor and the emperor is considered incapable of doing wrong. Jahangir (16051628) In his early years he strengthened central control, but the court fell under the influence of his wives. Shah Jahan (16281652) During his reign he killed all his rivals for the throne, expanded the boundaries of the empire, built the Taj Mahal, and experienced a growth of domestic problems. Aurangzeb (16581707) reforms, religious intolerance, and rebellions marked his rule. Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan as a memorial to his wife, Mumtaz Muhal. It took decades to complete and put an economic toll on the Mughal empire, but is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. Western Powers in India The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in India and they focused on establishing a monopoly on trade with the country. The English arrived in 1608 in Surat. Their request to trade with India was initially rejected, but allowed to have an ambassador in the imperial court in Agra in 1616. Eventually they established trading posts on the west cost like Fort William (Calcutta). The Dutch and French were rivals in the market in India. The Dutch eventually lost interest and the French seized Madras in 1746. They were however overpowered by the English. Sir Robert Clive British administrator who was head of the East India Company. Pondicherry the last remaining French trading fort in India. Black Hole of Calcutta unground prison for captured British prisoners. Were held here by an India ruler who attacked Fort William. Battle of Plassey (1757) small British force of three thousand defeat Mughal army. From this victory the British took over Mughal court and began to collect taxes Decline of Mughal Empire Reasons for t empire include: a draining of imperial treasury, a decline in the competency of rulers, loosely knit principalities, and an unwillingness of the wealthy to accept authority.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'