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Chapter 16 Notes

by: Raven Hamilton

Chapter 16 Notes History 1112

Raven Hamilton
Clayton State
GPA 3.73

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Extensive notes from class and readings on Chapter 16- The Muslim Empires
Survey of Modern World History
Shane Bell
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Shane Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Survey of Modern World History in History at Clayton State University.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
History 1112 Notes­ Chapter 16   In­class Notes/ Reading Notes: th  Ottoman Empire­ established by a group of Turks in the late 13  century under the  leadership of Osman (1280­1360). This group expanded their territories and founded the  Osmanli dynasty. Others found that this sounded like ‘Ottoman’, which stuck and is how  they got their name. Ottoman rule proved to be more tolerant and beneficial than the  previous empire of Byzantine.  Byzantine Empire­ controlled much of the land between the Mediterranean and Black  Seas. They, however, where weakened by the sack of Constantinople in the Fourth  Crusade of 1204.  Orkhan I (1326­1360)­ led the Ottoman Turks in attack across the Bosporus and into the Balkans.  Beys­ from the Turkish word ‘beg’ meaning ‘knight’, this was a term for Turkish  governors who collected taxes from the local Slavic peasants.  Sultan­ Turkish term for ruler or king of the domain.  Murad I (1360­1389)­ son of Orkhan I who succeeds in power after his death, who  reduced the Byzantine Empire to a vassal.  His military forces were composed mostly of  janissaries. With these Murad defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389.  Janissaries­ from the Turkish word ‘yeni cheri’ meaning ‘new troops’, this was a term  used to describe a group of Christians who were recruited by the Ottomans to serve in  their military. They converted these recruits to Islam and trained them as foot soldiers.  Provided protection for the palace as well as aid in extending the empire.  Bayazid I (1389­1402)­ successor of Murad, advanced the empire northward. His reign is marked by victories of the French and a defeat by the Mongols. He set the stage for the  siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Holy Roman Empire.  Mehmet II (1451­1481)­ succeeded the throne following Bayazid. Captured  Constantinople which led to it’s fall in 1453 subsequently leading to the end of the Holy  Roman Empire.  Suleyman I ‘The Magnificent’ (1520­1566)­ led Turks to seize Belgrade in 1521,  gained victory of Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs, and expanded the empire to Vienna  Lepanto­ location of Turkish defeat by Spanish in 1571. The Spanish destroyed a  Turkish fleet which stunted the empire dominion over the Mediterranean and left them to  stay on the southern shores.  Siege of Vienna 1683­ Ottomans laid siege to Vienna and Hungarians but were meet  with resistance and pushed out of Hungary.  Harem­ the private dominion of the Sultan. A woman’s place within the harem depended on the ability to birth a male heir. The women were often slaves, but were educated and  trained and often exercised influence. Unlike popular belief, few of theses women were  used as sex slaves to the Sultan.  Devshrime­ term for system in which women of the harem were trained. Originates in  the practice of requiring clan leaders to provide slaves to the Sultan as tax.   Grand vizier­ the chief minister, acts as a go­between for the Sultan and his councilors.  Sipahis­ officials who garnered taxes from peasants in their fiefdom.  Millet­ administrative unit of each religious minority. Each group had their own patriarch or priest who dealt with government.  Shari ‘a­ Islamic law.  Provinces and districts governed by officials who combined civil and military functions.  These officials were appointed by the Sultan who had assigned land to them. They came  to reach a high level of authority within their provinces.  Ottoman Religion and Society­ The Ottoman ruling elites were Sunni Muslims. The  sultan claimed the title of caliph and had to uphold the Shari ‘a law. Sunni Muslims made up the majority of Turkic­speaking people within the empire, however some practices  other doctrines like Sufism. Non­Muslims within the society were tolerated and left to  practice their religion. They did have to pay a head tax to compensate for being exempt  from military service. As far as social classes go, the Ottomans placed Islamic Turks in  charge. Women were subservient to men but not completely slaves. They were treated  fairly and were considered as minors on the same level as children.  Decline of the Ottomans­ The decline of the Ottoman Empire began with the Battle of  Carolwitz in 1699. The administrative system began to break down, changes were being  made to the devshrime system, and there was corruption within the empire. Material  affluence, western influence, and a series of weak rulers also contributed to their decline.  Ottoman Art­ Art in the Ottoman empire centered around pottery, rugs, textiles, arms,  armor, and calligraphy, with rugs being the most notable. In Ottoman architecture there is the Hagia Sophia and Suleyman Mosque in Istanbul which started as a Christian church but was later used as a mosque. The Ottomans also made marks in tiles and mosaics and  in the silk industry.  The Safavids­ Muslims who were not ethnically Muslim. Their empire was to the east of  the Ottoman empire, was centered in the ancient civilization of Persia, which is now Iran, and lasted about 200 years. The state language within the empire was Farci (?).   Shah Ismail (1487­1524)­ founder of the Safavid Empire and claimed to be a descendant of Ali the fourth imam of the Muslim faith. He was a Sufi Muslim and seized much of  Iraq and Iran during his reign around 1501. Ismail sent Shi’ite preachers to Anatolia to  promote rebellion among Turkish tribes.  Shah Abbas (1587­1629)­ Second ruler of the Safavid empire. Was forced by the  Ottomans to sign a punitive peace which loss the empire much of it’s territory. The  empire, however, reached it’s peak under his reign. He built up the empire’s military and  attempted to gain back lost land but was not successful.  Decline of Safavids­ After the death of Shah Abbas, the empire was strong for a while  but then was plagued by a series of militant rulers who curtailed freedoms previously  enjoyed by citizens. The Ottomans began to seize territories along the western border and the empire collapsed in 1723.  Mughals (Gunpowder Empire)­ a group of Muslims that establish the Mughal empire  which is centered in India. Founders of this empire were not natives of India, the  originated in the region north of the Ganges River. The culture within the empire was  mostly Islamic with Persian and indigenous influences. There is a mix of Hindus and  Muslims. Women within this empire were heavily controlled by traditions and customs  like purdah and sati.  Sati­ a practice where when a man dies it is expected that the widower of that man would throw herself on his burning body and commit suicide. This practice was done away with  with the rule of Europeans.  Purdah­ women in the Mughal empire were barred from associating with men outside of  the home.  Barbur (1483­1530)­ founder of the Mughal Empire, descendant of great Asian  conqueror Tamerlane. He inherited part of Tamerlane’s empire and in 1517 crossed the  Khyber Pass into India. He and his army captured Delhi in 1526 and thus gained control  of the northern plains.  Humayun (1530­1556)­ son of Barbur and successor to the throne. He was forced to flee  to Persia in 1540 and lived in exile for 16 years. Eventually, with aid, he returned and  recaptured Delhi in 1555. He died the following year.  Akbur (1556­1605)­ took the throne at the age of 14. Under his rule the empire expanded from the Himalaya Mountains to the Godavari River. He practiced religious tolerance and created a new form of worship called the Divine Faith (Din­i­Ilahi).  Zamindars­ local officials who accumulated considerable power, acted as governors  within the empire.  Divine Faith (Din­i­Ilahi)­ faith where subjects worship the emperor and the emperor is  considered incapable of doing wrong.  Jahangir (1605­1628)­ In his early years he strengthened central control, but the court  fell under the influence of his wives.  Shah Jahan (1628­1652)­ During his reign he killed all his rivals for the throne,  expanded the boundaries of the empire, built the Taj Mahal, and experienced a growth of  domestic problems.  Aurangzeb (1658­1707)­ reforms, religious intolerance, and rebellions marked his rule.  Taj Mahal­ built by Shah Jahan as a memorial to his wife, Mumtaz Muhal. It took  decades to complete and put an economic toll on the Mughal empire, but is considered  one of the most beautiful buildings in the world.  Western Powers in India­ The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in India  and they focused on establishing a monopoly on trade with the country. The English  arrived in 1608 in Surat. Their request to trade with India was initially rejected, but  allowed to have an ambassador in the imperial court in Agra in 1616. Eventually they  established trading posts on the west cost like Fort William (Calcutta). The Dutch and  French were rivals in the market in India. The Dutch eventually lost interest and the  French seized Madras in 1746. They were however overpowered by the English.  Sir Robert Clive­ British administrator who was head of the East India Company.  Pondicherry­ the last remaining French trading fort in India.  Black Hole of Calcutta­ unground prison for captured British prisoners. Were held here  by an India ruler who attacked Fort William.  Battle of Plassey (1757)­ small British force of three thousand defeat Mughal army.  From this victory the British took over Mughal court and began to collect taxes  Decline of Mughal Empire­ Reasons for t empire include: a draining of imperial  treasury, a decline in the competency of rulers, loosely knit principalities, and an  unwillingness of the wealthy to accept authority.


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