Bio 1030 Week 2 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Edwards on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Biology in BIO at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Week 2 Notes Water o An amphipathic molecule forms partial charges on each side. Water is a good example of this. o Water forms hydrogen bonds o The universal solvent (Will dissolve all polar substances) o Hydrogen bonds allow water to be a liquid at room temperature o Takes a lot of energy to break bonds o Water will expand when it becomes a solid (Freezing) o High surface tension o Ionic Pollution o Fossil fuels release CO 2 o Sulfur and NO r2act with water to form acid rain o Acid rain has a pH less than 5.2 o Carbon dioxide dissolving in seawater lowers the ocean’s pH in a process called ocean acidification Functional group, Monomers, Polymers o A functional group affects the characteristics of a molecule o Each polymer is made up of a specific monomer Carbohydrate: Glucose Protein: Amino Lipids: Fatty Acid Nucleic Acid: Nucleotide o Monomers link to form monomers through dehydration reactions o Sugars belong to the carbohydrate group Starch is linear, glycogen is not Lipids o Lipids are insoluble and hydrophobic o Mostly made of Carbon and Hydrogen in nonpolar bonds o Not huge molecules o Vary in structure and function o A fat is a lipid made from glycerol and fatty acids o A fatty acid with one or more double bonds is a unsaturated fatty acid These have one less hydrogen on the double bonded carbon o A fat with the max amount of hydrogen are saturated fatty acids o Steroids are lipids where the carbon skeleton contains four fuse rings o Cholesterol is a common component in animal cell membranes and is the starting material for most steroids Nucleotides o Made of nucleotides o Central Dogma DNARNAProteins o Genes consist of DNA Genes are inherited from parents Directs cell activities o DNA is transcribed to RNA o RNA is translated to proteins o Nucleotides are made of three things Phosphate Nitrogenous Base Sugar o Purines Adenine Guanine o Pyrimidines Cytosine Thymine o The sugar in DNA is Deoxyribose o The sugar in RNA is Ribose o In RNA Thymine is replace with Uracil Proteins o Composed of different arrangements of a common set of twenty amino acid monomers o A protein can have different functions ranging from Structural Contractile Defensive Signal Receptor Transport Storage Enzymes Cells o Cell Theory Each organism is made of cells All cells have similar structures Cells come from other cells o Four Basic Functions of cells Plasma membrane provides optimal conditions on the inside of the cell (Homeostasis) Store information and pass it to the next generation of cells Have chemical reactions to break down compounds (Metabolism) Synthesis of Proteins
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