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BSCI 201, Week 1 class notes

by: Shira Clements

BSCI 201, Week 1 class notes BSCI 201

Marketplace > University of Maryland > Biological Sciences > BSCI 201 > BSCI 201 Week 1 class notes
Shira Clements
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About this Document

Beginning of Anatomy
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Dr. Jessica Opoku
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, bsci201, Science




Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shira Clements on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI 201 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Jessica Opoku in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
BSCI201 8-29-16 Lecture 1- Introduction and Human Body - mastering anatomy o pal 3.0 o mp3 tutor session ­ Kingdom Animalia- man is part of the animal kingdom ­ Phylum Chordata- consists of animals with spines ­ Class Mammalia0 man is a mammal, warm blooded and bears its young live ­ Order Primates. This order includes humans and all apes, monkeys, gorillas, etc. ­ Family Hominidae. The hominids include man and his closest cousins, chimps and gorillas ­ Genus Homo. The family of man, including our extinct predecessors, Homo erectus and the Neanderthals ­ Species sapiens ­ Homo sapiens = “Wise Man” Anatomy- the study of parts of the bod3 y and how they relate to each other ­ Many subdivisions of anatomy o Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy – the study of large body parts visible to the naked eye o Regional Anatomy – all the structures in a particular region of the body o Systemic Anatomy – structure of the body are studied by the systems o Microscopic Anatomy – very small structures that can not be viewed with the naked eye – structures viewed by the aid of a microscope:  Cytology – cells viewed by the aid of microscope  Histology – tissues viewed by the aid of microscope o Developmental Anatomy – structural changes ( such as growth) that occur in the body throughout the life span ­ to study the antomy o need to understand how body parts relate to one another o 1. Observation o 2. Manipulation o mastery of anatomical terms- language of anatomy 3 Body Planes and Sections (gives reference points) • Frontal (Coronal ) Plane: a vertical cut that divides the body in anterior and posterior parts. • Sagittal Plane: a vertical cut that divides the body into right and left parts - Midsagittal plane – a sagittal cut exactly on the midline that divides the body into EQUAL right and left parts -Parasagittal Plane - a sagittal cut not on the midline that divides the body into UNEQUAL right and left parts  Transverse or Cross Sectional Plane: a horizontal cut that divides the body into superior and inferior parts The Body in Anatomical Position- (in MRI- the reference point is this- if not written it is assumed it is like this, cant see if it is in fetal position) • BODY ERECT • FEET SLIGHTLY APART • PALMS FACE FORWARD • THUMBS POINT AWAY FROM THE BODY Lecture 2- 2 body cavities in the human body: ­ Dorsal Body Cavity- o Superior cranial vacity  Brain o Inferiors vertebral (spinal) cavity-  Spinal cord o Each organ is surrounded by membranes called MENINCES ­ ­ Ventral body cavity- o Partitioned by skeletal muscle called the DIAPHRAM  Superior to the diaphragm is the thorasic cavity  Heart  Lungs  Trachea  Esophagus  Inferior to diaphragm is the abdominal pelvic cavity  Most of the digestive tract organ  All of the urinary tract organs  Most Reproductive tract organs o Each organ in the ventral body cavit Is surrounded by the SEROUS membrane o may be given by specific names- serious membrance surrounds the heart is the pericardial sac ­ Serous membrane surround the lungs- plevral sac ­ Serious membrane sounds each organs in the abdomen pelvic cavity- peritoneal Compartmentalization- ­ Arrangement of organs in the body whereby each is surrounded by its own membrane to form a compartment isolating each organ. (isolation) ­ Advantages of compartmentalization of organs is the body cavities o Isolation Prevents spread of infection  Because it has to go through other organs and compartments o Isolation help each organ function independently o Prevents interference from neighboring organs o Membranes surround each organ hold the organ in the correct anatomical position For bigger things- it is separated into 4 quadraants ­ right upper quadrant ­ left upper quadrant ­ right lower quadrant Right upper ­ left lower quadrant Left upper ­ SHOULD LOOK AT IT IN REVERSE- BECAUSE quadrant quadrant YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE PICTURE SO IT IS FACING THE OTHER WAY For the small things- it is split up into 9 regions: Right  Right upper lower quadrant quadrant Physiology- • The study of the function of the body’s parts/ of organs in organ systems • Systemic Physiology – study of the function of the systems of the body. • 11 organ systems in the Human Body – all eleven organ systems work in unison to sustain the human body, a state referred to as HOMEOSTASIS • you really only need 10- you don’t need the reproduction system- you only become funtional it after puberty, not required for the maintenance of homeostasis • 10 organs systems work in unison to sustain life- HOMOEOSTASIS • PRINCIPLE OF COMPLEMENTARITY OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – “STRUCTURE DEFINES FUNCTION” 11 Organ Systems in the Human Body- • Integumentary System • Skeletal System • Muscular System • Nervous System • Endocrine System • Cardiovascular System • Lymphatic System • Respiratory System • Digestive System • Urinary System • Reproductive System- don’t NEED this one Homeostasis: maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment where all 10  organ systems are working in unison although the internal and external environments  may be changing ­ inability of the body to maintain homeostasis- homeostatic imbalance o disease state o always starts in one organ system and then can spread 6 Levels of Structureal Organization ­ 1 level- o Chemical level  Atoms combine to form molecules  Chemical interactions that occur inside the body to define physiciaolgy  function- biochemical reactions that occur to maintain homeostasis ­ 2ndlevel: o Cellular level  Cells are made up of molecules  Cells are the structural/functional unites of all organisms  Chemical reactions occur inside the cells ­ 3 level o tissue level  tissues is composed of similar types of cells  in the human body, with the exceptionof red blood cells, white blood cells, spermatozoa (sperm), cells aggregated to form tissues  4 types of tissues in the human body  Epithelial Tissue  Connective Tissue  Muscle Tissue  Nervous Tissue ­ 4 level o Organ level  Organs are made up of at least 2 different types of tissues ­ 5 level o Organ system level  Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely ­ 6 level o Organismal level  The human organism is made up of 11 organ systems Simplest level ­ cheimical level 2nd level-


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