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PSY 101 chapter 1

by: Andrej Sodoma

PSY 101 chapter 1 PSY 101

Andrej Sodoma
GPA 3.77

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These notes cover the lectures that have covered chapter 1.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Elizabeth Nelson
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrej Sodoma on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
Lecture 1, Brief History of Psychology: chapter 1 pg. 3­25 I. Goal of psychology is to first describe behavior second explain behavior third  predict behavior and finally control behavior.  II. How do beliefs occur?  A. Cognitive bias: a bias towards attributing the behavior of others to internal factors.  i. Fundamental attribution error: A b as toward attributing the  behavior of others to internal factors. ii. Actor observer affect: The tendency to attribute other people’s  behavior to internal causes while attributing one’s own behavior to  external causes. iii. Self­serving bias: The tendency to attribute one’s successes to  internal characteristics while blaming one’s failures on external  causes. a. Internal factor: Inner strengths and weaknesses b. External factor: Outside influences iv. Unrealistic optimism: cognitive bias that causes a person to believe that they are less at risk of experiencing a negative event compared to others. c. Positivity bias: refers to the human tendency to overestimate  the possibility of positive (good) things happening in life or in  research. d. Negativity bias: also known as the negativity effect, refers to  the notion that, even when of equal intensity, things of a more  negative nature (e.g. unpleasant thoughts, emotions, or social  interactions; harmful/traumatic events) have a greater effect on  one's psychological state and processes than do neutral or  positive things III. Why do we have cognitive bias?  A. Cognitive psychology: Psychologists who study the mental processes  underlying judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and  other aspects of human thought or cognition. Also called experimental  psychologists. i. The brain is a meaning­making machine. Existing neural networks  shape new things. Neural networks are plastic and can be shaped  and molded, this happens consciously and unconsciously. IV. What is the conscious?   A. Philosophers started it.  i. Descartes founded dualism ii. Aristotle founded monism meaning everyone is a blank slate  formed by outer experiences.  iii. Plato: relationship between the mind, body, experience and  knowledge. Reason, spirit, appetite are all connected. iv. Structuralism: the personal observation of our own thoughts,  feelings, and behaviors. Our consciousness can be broken down  into its essential parts.  v. Functionalism: mental states are identified by what they do rather than  by what they are made of. a. Consciousness serves an adaptive purpose by helping us  survive.  b. Behavior is purposeful, our behavior has evolved (mirrors  Darwinism)  v. Psychodynamic theory: Freud, our behavior is deeply influenced  by unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires. Abnormal  behavior can result from life experiences, leading to fear, anxiety,  and other counter productive emotional responses.  a. Tripartite model of personality: b.   c. Preconscious: part of the mind below the level of immediate  conscious awareness, from which memories and emotions that  have not been repressed can be recalled. d. Conscious: aware e. Subconscious: the part of the mind of which one is not fully  aware but which influences one's actions and feelings. f. Id: primal instincts, biological drives i. Eros: life­ sustaining drives ii. Thanatos: destructive forces that maybe directed to the  self or other aggression and violence  g. Super ego: keeps id in check.  h. Ego: personality, reason.  i. Oral (0­2) mouth pleasure. Anal (2­3) poop. Phallic (3­7)  genital differences. Latency (7­11) personality development.  Genital (11 and up) control sexual urges.  j. When you fail in one of these stages issues occur.  k. Defense mechanism: repression, denial, projection,  displacement, regression, and sublimation.  Conclusion: We no longer think the same as Freud. Freud managed to combine and  communicate ideas about the aspects of the unconscious mind, the development of  sexuality, dream analysis, and psychological roots of abnormal behavior… vi. Behaviorism: the theory that human and animal behavior can be  explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or  feelings, and that psychological disorders are best treated by  altering behavior patterns. a. Our behavior is learned, observable, and measurable.  b. Biological vulnerability: you will become your parents i. Kalikak family: long line of feeblemindedness started  with a woman so they thought it was a trait carried by  woman. What they found out later was that the feeble­ mindedness was due to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, no  education, no social interaction, poor.  c. Did right: Anti eugenic stance, based characteristics on data  that can be measured, better understanding of environmental  influence on behavior. d. Did wrong: On cannot become whatever they are trained to be  because everybody is different; hence, they did not consider  individual differences. Ignore the role of cognition in human  behavior. Behaviorism based parenting was harsh (no love or  codling).  I.) Behaviorism continued…chapter 1: history of psychology and major theories. A.) Classical conditioning: a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone. i.) Pavlov is the main researcher that pioneered this form. ii.) Example: a dog called with food and a whistle eventually the person takes away the food but the dog is still excited because he has related the whistle with food.  B.) Operant conditioning: is a type of learning in which the strength of a  behavior is modified by the behavior's consequences, such as reward or  punishment i.) Skinner  ii.) Reinforcement: Positive or negative action used to increase a desired behavior.  iii.) Punishment:   positive   or   negative   action   used   to   decrease   a behavior that is undesired.  a. Typically use a schedule of reinforcement: you do something wanted in order to get something in return.  b. Intermittent reinforcement: unpredictable reward. Works the best because the person does not know what will happen so they are more likely to do the wanted action more often.  C.) Social learning: learning is a cognitive process that takes place in  a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct  instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct  reinforcement. i.) Bandura ii.) Humans   learn   through   imitation.   They   also   expand   on   the behavior. We are also unconsciously influenced by the behavior occurring around us.  iii.) Bobo doll experiment: A film of an adult beating up a blow up toy clown was shown to children. The children were then placed in a room with the doll. The children then proceeded to beat up the toy. II.) Humanistic psychology­ Abraham Maslow A,)We have free will to live more creative meaningful and satisfying lives.  B.) Maslow 5 stages. Movement occurs when people are satisfied with the level they are at. People can jump around levels when one level is unsatisfied.  i.) physiological: breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis. ii.) safety: security of body, morality, family, health, respect. iii.) love/belonging: friendship, family, intimacy. iv.) esteem: self esteem, confident, achievement, respect.  v.) self actualization: morality, spontaneity, problem solving.      C.)  Humanism: emphasizes the study of the whole person. Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers.  i.) All people have the same needs. ii.) Emphasizes what people have in common.  iii.) Stresses the potential of humans for good. D.)Person centered therapy  i.) Insight oriented: realize problems on your own. ii.) Goal is to fulfill ones potential.  iii.) Unconditional positive regard: you can say anything and they will not judge.  iv.) Empathy: feel bad with you.  v.) Does it work?  a.   Decreases   tension,   defensiveness,   frustration,   psychological tension, more mature, better worker.  E.) Rogers development concepts i.) Behavior: attempts to satisfy needs, as experienced and perceived not always cognitively by the individual.  ii.) Emotions: result from the significance of needs and behaviors and the degree of that to self concept  a. People who you care more about can hurt you more iii.) Self­concept is stable. However, it is fluid in response to new information both internal and external.  a. Self­concept: the organized consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself.  b. Openness to environment c. Trust in judgment  d. Ability to make constructive choices  III.) Cognitive psychology: the study of mental processes such as "attention,  language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking.". Ulrie Neisser  A.)How our brain processes information influences how we behave.        B.) Cognitive therapy: helps with thinking and behavior  i.) A disorder is linked to thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and brain  chemistry.  ii.) the eclectic approach or integral approach a.) Comparing several perspectives provides a more complete  picture and behavior.      IV.) Modern Psychology           A.)Fields: Biological, evolutionary, cognitive, psychodynamic, behavior, sociocultural, humanistic perspective.        B.) Psychologists today…


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