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by: Karly Vittetoe
Karly Vittetoe
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Terms Diseases Public Health ZIKA Environmental Diseases
Resources Geology
Luca Fedele
Class Notes
diseases, Public, heath, environmental, Zika
25 ?




Popular in Resources Geology

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karly Vittetoe on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Luca Fedele in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Resources Geology in Geoscience at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Water contamination and other environmental changes can contribute to infectious disease transmission. Better sanitation and success to public health programs, as well as clean air, can improve human health. Waterborne disease - an infectious disease acquired through contact with contaminated water Vector-borne disease - an infectious disease acquired from organisms that transmit a pathogen from one host to another Infectious diseases - illnesses caused by invading pathogen such as a bacterium or virus Pathogen - an infectious agent that causes illness or disease Public health - the science that deals with the health of human population Epidemiologist - a scientist who studies the causes and patterns of disease in human population Noncommunicable diseases - illnesses that are not transmissible between people, not infectious Zoonotic disease - a disease that is spread between infected animals (not merely a vector that transmits the pathogen but another host that harbors the pathogen through its life cycle) and humans Emerging infectious diseases - infectious disease that are new to humans or that have recently increased significantly in incidence, in some cases by spreading to new ranges ZIKA  Virus (arbovirus): vertebrate <--> mosquito  Discovered/Isolated o 1947 (monkey) - Africa o 1948 (mosquito) - Africa  2013 & 2014 o Large French Polynesian Outbreak  Guillain-Barré syndrome - disorder  2015 Brazil o Severe congenital malformations (microcephaly)  It is now clear that ZIKV is following the path of DENV and CHIKV, spreading to all countries infested with Aedeas aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes Tiny water fleas in Niger cause worm inflections the attack villages every year or so. These worms incapacitate workers during the harvest season, and female worms burrow through tissues and cause painful blisters. Filtering water can stop this cycle of infection because the worms can only survive when humans ingest the larvae. The role of public health is to improve the health of the human population, both in more developed nations and in less developed nations. Educates - public health professionals provide information and health care advice to communities. Changing behaviors can be a critical part of improving public health Provides Health Care - public health care workers provide needed preventative medial care and treatment Proposes Actions - once risks are identified public health professionals make recommendations to improve health in specific groups and in the population as a whole Conducts Risk Assessments - epidemiologists analyze statistics related to a populations health to determine risk for various groups in the population PUBLIC HEALTH: Understand different social and cultural systems Identify risks Analyze relevant information Develop methods to eliminate or mediate those risks Noncommunicable diseases have a more significant impact but cannot be transferred from one individual or another (non-contagious) Cardiovascular disease is usually the result of behavior or genetics Infectious diseases are those that can move form one victim to the next by a vector or another organism. Many rely on other organisms as intermediate hosts. Many emerging infectious diseases are related to environmental changes such as climate change and habitat loss. Other causes are related to contaminate water supplies. Viruses must be ingested by the new host. Fleas biting humans transmitted plague and the Hantavirus particles are inhaled by the victim. Bacteria can be found in contaminated food or water (ex. cholera and E coli). The cycle can be stopped:  Drinking water that has been filtered or purifies  Treating the water with a mild pesticide  Not putting infected limbs in water REDUCE THE RISKS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Differences in access to medical care Sanitation Water treatment Food safety Social and economic stability Technology Cause of death vary in relation to class and income. The Age of Pestilence and Famine - The Age of Receding Pandemics - populations start to grow due to The Age of Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases - diseases that occur ACTIONS TO IMPROVE: Provide access to clean water Improves sanitation and hygiene Reduce air pollution Education Effective public policy Epidemiologist - a scientist who studies the causes and patterns of disease in human populations Environmental Health - the branch of public health that focuses on factors in the natural world and the human-built environment that impact the health of populations


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