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Psychology 101 - week 2 (08/31/2016) pt. 2

by: Kiara Goins

Psychology 101 - week 2 (08/31/2016) pt. 2 PSYC 101 006

Kiara Goins
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

these notes are a continuation of the first part of chapter 2. I will put up chapter 1 and pt. 1 of chapter 2 up asap.
Introduction to Psychology
Class Notes
PsychlogicalResearch, Psychology, CorrelationsResearch
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Goins on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 006 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Freshman Academic Seminar at Southeastern Louisiana University.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
Psychology 101 – 8/31/16  Correlation Research o Identify relationship o Correlation coefficients  Determines the strength and weakness of relationship o Positive correlation: variables move in the same direction  One variable increases, the other will increase  One variable decreases, the other will decrease o Negative correlation: variable moves in opposite direction  One variable increases, the other will decrease  o Correlation does not equal causation  Third variable - Extraneous variable that has not been measure accounts for the relationship between two variables  Longitudinal design o Correlational studies allow researchers to study variables that cannot be manipulated  Archival Research o When you examine existing data, such as college records, online database, newspaper clippings and consensual papers to make a hypotenuse Experimental Research o The study of the relationship between two variables. the researcher must use experimental methods to determine the causality  Experiment – researcher manipulates one of the variables, to see if it influences the behavior in question o Experimental manipulation: The change that an experimenter purposefully produces in a situation o Ind. V – the variable that is manipulated in an experiment o Dep. V – the result of the manipulation from the ind. Variable (must be measured) o Experimental group -the group’s variable is manipulated (changed) o Control group – treated equally but, the group does not receive a change in the variable  Ind. Variable = only thing that can be changed o Extraneous Variables – variable other than the IV that seems likely to influence the DV  Confounding Variables – occurs when 2 variables are linked together in a way that makes difficult to sort out their specific effects  Random Assignments -dividing participants randomly into two different groups  Given equal chance to be in either group  Cautions about E.R o Validity – whether the experiment studied what it is supposed to be study.  External V. - determines if the experimental design is representative of real world issues  Internal V. – changes in DV that can be manipulated from the variable  Bias and Expectations o Experimenter Bias: occurs when the experimenter’s expectations influence the results of the study o Research Participant Bias: when the participant’s behavior during the experiment is influenced by how they believe they are supposed to be behaving o Placebo Effect  Placebo – an innocuous, inert, substance that has no effect on the behavior on the participants  Occurs when the participant’s expectations produce an experimental outcome, even though they did not receive any manipulation. o Double Blind Experiment – when neither the participant(s) not the experimenter is aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group  Research Sample  Population: entire group about whom conclusion drawn  Sample: portion of population actually observe  Representative Sample: characteristics similar to population o Opposite of “biased sample”  Random Sample: equal chance of being selected  Analyze and Interpret Data o Statistics – mathematical methods used to report data o Descriptive Statistics – describe and summarizes data  Measures of Central Tendency – a measure of central tendency shows the overall characteristics of the data  Mean – average of the data  Medium – the scores that fall directly in the center of the data  Mode – the score that occurs the most in the data  Measures of Dispersion – how much the score vary from each other (also called variability)  Range – difference between the highest and the lowest score  Standard deviation – measures how much the scores vary, on average, around the mean o Inferential Statistics – Mathematical methods used to determine if the data supports the hypothesis (draw conclusions about data)  Statistical significance – when the probability observed findings are not/or very lowly due to chance  Significant outcome – meaningful results that researchers have confirmed their outcome


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