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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Michela Spicer

Chapter 1 Notes CJ 270

Michela Spicer
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These notes cover the objectives in chapter 1 and all of the key terms.
Introduction to Corrections
Patrick Halliday
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 270 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Patrick Halliday in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Corrections in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
Chapter 1: Corrections: An Overview Objectives: 1. Describe the corrections explosion of the past 20 years, including the recent leveling off of correctional populations  Despite that crime rates are the lowest they have been in the past 20 years, the population in correctional facilities is increasing because of other reasons such as drug use, being more strict on crimes, people not abiding by their parole, and fearing public outcry. This growth in the correctional facility population has led to expanding the workface in this environment and has increased the number of jobs available. 2. Describe how crime is measured in the United States, and lit the kinds of crimes that cause people to enter correctional programs and institutions  The two most important sources of crime data are the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey, which is published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. People who are included in correctional programs and institutions are those who have committed felonies, misdemeanors, and/or infractions. 3. List and describe the various components of the criminal justice system, including the major components of the corrections subsystem  Main components of the criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections. Each is a subsystem of the CJ system.  Major components of the corrections subsystem are jails, probation, parole, and prisons  Jails and prisons are examples of institutional corrections, while probation and parole are forms of noninstitutional corrections 4. Explain the importance of professionalism in the corrections field, and describe the characteristics of a true professional  Professionalism in corrections is important because it can win the respect and admiration of others outside of the field  Professionals are regarded as trusted participants in any field of endeavor 5. Define evidence-based corrections, and explain the important role that it plays in corrections professionalism today  Evidence-based corrections: the application of social scientific techniques to the study of everyday corrections procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness and enhancing the efficient use of available resources  When discussing this topic, it is important to remember that the word evidence refers to scientific, not criminal, evidence 6. Understand what is meant by social diversity, and explain why issues of race, gender, and ethnicity are important in corrections today  Social diversity refers to the differences of race, gender, and ethnicity and is important in corrections today because it impacts individual correctional clients, influences correctional populations and trends, affects the lives and interests of those working in the field of corrections, and may help determine the structure and functioning of correctional institutions, facilities, and programs Key Terms  Crime: a violation of a criminal law  Prison: a state or federal confinement facility that has custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement  Sustainable justice: criminal laws and criminal justice institutions, policies, and practices that achieve justice in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to have the benefits of a just society  Felony: a serious criminal offense; specifically, one punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility for more than a year  Misdemeanor: a relatively minor violation of the criminal law, such as petty theft or simple assault, punishable by confinement for one year or less  Infraction: a minor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other penalty, or by a specified, usually very short term of incarceration  Correctional clients: prison inmates, probationers, parolees, offenders assigned to alternative sentencing programs, and those held in jails  Criminal justice: the process of achieving justice through the application of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal justice system. Also, the study of the field of criminal justice  Criminal justice system: the collection of all the agencies that perform criminal justice functions, whether these are operations or administration or technical support. The basic divisions of the criminal justice system are police, courts, and corrections  Adjudication: the process by which a court arrives at a final decision in a case  Arraignment: an appearance in court prior to trial in a criminal proceeding  Nolo contendere: a plea of “no contest.” A no-contest plea may be used by a defendant who does not wish to contest conviction. Because the plea does not admit guilt, however, it cannot provide the basis for later civil suits  Institutional corrections: that aspect of the correctional enterprise that “involves the incarceration and rehabilitation of adults and juveniles convicted of offenses against the law, and the confinement of persons suspected of a crime awaiting trial and adjudication”  Noninstitutional corrections (also community corrections): that aspect of the correctional enterprise that includes “pardon, probation, and parole activities, correctional administration not directly connectable to institutions, and miscellaneous [activities] not directly related to institutional care”  Corrections: all the various aspects of the pretrial and postconviction management of individuals accused or convicted of crimes  Mores: cultural restrictions on behavior that forbid serious violations- such as murder, rape, and robbery- of a group’s values  Folkways: time-honored ways of doing things. Although they carry the force of tradition, their violation is unlikely to threaten the survival of the social group  Criminal law (also penal law): that portion of the law that defines crimes and specifies criminal punishments  Profession: an occupation granted high social status by virtue of the personal integrity of its members  Corrections professional: a dedicated person of high moral character and personal integrity who is employed in the field of corrections and takes professionalism to heart  Professional associations: organized groups of like-minded individuals who work to enhance the professional status of members of their occupational group  Certification: a credentialing process, usually involving testing and career development assessment, through which the skills, knowledge, and abilities of correctional personnel can be formally recognized  Evidence-based corrections (also evidence-based penology): the application of social scientific techniques to the study of everyday corrections procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness and enhancing the efficient use of available resources  Cost-benefit analysis: a systematic process used to calculate the costs of a program relative to its benefits. Programs showing the largest benefit per unit of expenditure are seen as the most effective  Racism: Social practices that explicitly or implicitly attribute merits or allocate value to individuals solely because of their race


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