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Chapter 3 Notes

by: Michela Spicer

Chapter 3 Notes BSC 108

Michela Spicer

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These notes cover all of chapter 3, including the 4 macromolecules.
Intro to Biology Non-Maj
Dr. Yates
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology Non-Maj in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Macromolecules  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Lipids  Nucleic Acids Cells make macromolecules  Cells make carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids by linking smaller identical parts into larger units  In other words, cells link subunits called monomers into polymers o Polymers: a large molecule made from many similar small molecules called subunits or monomers Condensation Reaction  A bond forms between 2 monomers  Dehydration reaction o 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule o One molecule provides a hydroxyl group and the other provides a hydrogen o To make a polymer the reaction is repeated as monomers are added one by one Hydrolysis  A process whereby polymers are disassembled to monomers  It is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction  Hydrolysis means to “break with water”  Bonds are broken by the addition of water molecules, a hydrogen from the water attaches to one monomer and a hydroxyl attaches to the adjacent monomer Carbohydrates  Subunits are sugars  Contain C, H, O in ratio of 1:2:1  Polymers are polysaccharides  Store energy oAnimals- glycogen oPlants- starch Functions of Sugars  Provide energy- readily broken down to release energy  Structure Monosaccharides  Monosaccharides are simple sugars oGlucose, found in sports drinks oFructose, found in fruit  Honey contains both glucose and fructose  Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work Disaccharides  A disaccharide is a double sugar oDisaccharides are joined by the process of dehydration synthesis  It is constructed from two monosaccharides  Sucrose (glucose and fructose)  Lactose (igalactose and glucose) o Some people have trouble digesting lactose, a condition called lactose intolerance o Lactase (enzymes)  Maltose (glucose and glucose)  The United States is one of the world’s leading markets for sweeteners  The average American consumes about 64 kg or 140 pounds of sugar per year High Fructose Corn Syrup  What is high fructose corn syrup? o Corn processed to extract (starch)  broken down into glucose  converted to sweetener (fructose)  added to foods as high-fructose corn syrup  HFCS 55 (mostly used in soft drinks), approximately 55% fructose and 42% glucose  HFCS 42 (used in beverages, processed foods, cereals and baked goods), about 42% fructose and 53% glucose  HFCS 90, about 90% fructose and 10% glucose, is used in small quantities for specialty applications, but primarily is used to blend with HFCS 42 to make HFCS 55 Polysaccharides  Complex carbohydrates are called polysaccharides  Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on Earth oIt forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plants oIt is a major component of wood oAlso known as dietary fiber  Most animals cannot derive nutrition from fiber o Grazing animals survive on a diet of cellulose because they have prokaryotes in their digestive tracts that can break down cellulose Lipids (fats)  Complex group of molecules  Hydrophobic- not soluble in water  Types of lipids oTriglycerides oPhospholipids oSteroids Triglycerides  Compose of two types of molecules oGlycerol & fatty acids  Glycerol: 3-C with hydroxyl functional groups  Fatty acid: long chains of C & H (14-22 C) with a carboxyl group on one end  Functions of Triglycerides o Energy storage- higher amount of energy per gram in fats than in carbohydrates o Insulation of warm-blooded animals o Cushion internal organs  Fatty Acids oSaturated- no double bonds; solid; animal  Meat, dairy oUnsaturated- contain 1 or more double bonds; liquid; plant  Margarine, plant oils  Healthy Fats oFats with omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of heart disease oThese are polyunsaturated fats rd o The first double bond on the fatty acids tails is on the 3 carbon from the end oNuts oFish oil Phospholipids  Similar to neutral fats in that they are composite molecules  Contain glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and PO 4  Part of molecule associates with water, part does not  Phospholipid bilayers form structure of most biological membranes Steroids  Functions oStabilize membranes- cholesterol oChemical messengers- sex hormones  Testosterone  Estradiol  Synthetic anabolic steroids are controversial oThey are variants of testosterone  Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build up their muscles quickly oHowever, these substances can pose serious health risks The Monomers of Proteins: Amino Acids  All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 kinds of amino acids  Each amino acid consists of a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners in which three of those attachment groups are common to all amino acids  Amino acids are linked to form protein polymers o The carboxyl group of amino acid is joined to the amino group of another o The resulting bond is called a peptide bond o When the process is repeated over and over a polypeptide results  Every amino acid is important o A change in an amino acid can affect protein configuration and cause a malfunction of the protein  Ex: sickle cell anemia is due to a mutation that leads to a different amino acid in position 6 of the hemoglobin polypeptide  Protein Conformation o Proteins form 3-D shapes that are important for how the proteins function o 4 levels of protein structure  Primary  Secondary  Tertiary  Quaternary o What determines protein shape?  A protein’s shape is sensitive to the surrounding environment  Unfavorable temperature and pH changes can cause denaturation of a protein, in which it unravels and loses its shape  High fevers (above 104) in humans can cause some proteins to denature  Misfolded proteins are associated with  Alzheimer’s disease  Mad cow disease A prion disease Prions- infectious proteins that can become improperly folded The infectious and normal forms do NOT differ in amino acid sequences Instead, their shapes are radically different  Parkinson’s disease  Enzymes o Catalytic protein- speeds up biological reactions but not altered or consumed o Enzymes are substrate specific o Enzymes are affected by temperature and pH o Many enzymes require non-protein helpers called cofactors  Inorganic- zinc, iron, copper  Organic (also called coenzymes)- vitamins Nucleic Acids  Are macromolecules that provide the directions for building proteins  Include DNA and RNA oDNA resides in cells in long fibers called chromosomes  Are the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents  Two strands of DNA join together to form a double helix o Bases along one DNA strand hydrogen-bond to bases along the other strand  The functional groups hanging off the base determine which base pairs up (nucleotides) oA only pairs with T  Adenine  Thymine oG can only pair with C  Guanine  Cytosine  RNA, ribonucleic acid, is different from DNA o RNA is usually single-stranded but DNA usually exists as a double helix o RNA uses the sugar ribose and the base uracil (U) instead of thymine (T)


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