Honors Art 221 Week 2 Day 2 Notes
Honors Art 221 Week 2 Day 2 Notes Art 221
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy_SWK2018 on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art 221 at Meredith College taught by Dr. Beth Mulvaney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Honors Art History Survey I in Art at Meredith College.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
ART 221 8-30-16 War, Peace, and Authorial Vision in the Art of the Ancient Near East 1. The Fertile Crescent is the site of much conflict to this day a. Each culture is presented because it overthrew the previous landholder b. “The Cradle of Western Civilization” c. Famers formed city-states i. As the became sophisticated the formed religions and governments and specialized professions ii. This sophistication is apparent when we look at their art Sumerian region 2. Art works a. Warke Vase, Inanna Temple complex, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200-3000 BCE i. Figures in “relief” b. Figures and animals arranged in registers c. “workers” are carrying a votive offering to a god in thanks for something, carved in sets of two d. Top register has the most variation i. Person is clothed unlike register below ii. Figure is bigger, “hierarchical scale” e. Woman on top register i. Either goddess Inanna or priestess for her ii. Associated with things behind her iii. Two small figures above goat are likely servants f. Female head (Inanna?) i. Found in Inanna temple complex, ca. 3200-3000 BCE ii. Marble and 3D iii. Sophisticated carving in way face is modeled, contours to cheekbones iv. Groove in top of head to attach hair or headdress g. Votive figures i. From the Square Temple, Eshunna (Tell Asmar, Iraq), ca. 2700 BCE ii. Figure’s gesture could be prayer iii. Many sizes iv. Large eyes and gesture more important than body form v. Painted, possibly with tar h. Standard of Ur, i. Ca. 2600-2400 BCE ii. Wooden panel inlaid with shell, lapislazzuli and red shell 1. lapislazzuli is very expensive, mined in Afghanistan and ground iii. War side and peace side 1. War side a. Reads bottom to top, left to right b. Bottom register i. Running people over 1. These people, the “enemy”, are naked c. Second register i. Army is regularly spaced and orderly ii. Enemy is jumbled and disordered, naked, possibly prisoners of war d. Top register i. More prisoners of war on right being presented ii. Ruler (larger) followed by three attendants and a soldier 2. Peace side a. Herding cattle b. Herding sheep c. Food being rounded up to provide a feast on the top register d. Seated and clothed e. Everyone on right is facing larger man on left, used to bring attention to leader f. Probably to celebrate a victory g. Shows they possessed music b/c of harp present i. Bull-headed lyre, from Ur, c. 2600-2400 BCE i. Series of images decorating the face 1. Gold and lapislazzuli 2. Figures who are part man and part animal (composite figure) 3. Antelope drinking something 4. Animal playing bull-headed lyre 5. Animals carrying feast for celebration 6. Top register is super different a. Middle guy usually thought as like Gilgamesh b. Frontal torso and profile hip c. Only frontal face d. Important people do nothing lol e. Symmetrical f. Heraldic composition – visual stopping point 3. Architecture a. Temples b. City-states dedicated to gods c. White temple and Ziggurat, Uruk, ca. 3200-3000 BCE d. Meant to raise them toward the gods e. Made of mud baked brick b/c they didn’t have stone quarries f. Whitewashed g. Wasn’t open to everyone, only to priests h. Things like Warke Vase inside i. Mount a ramp and make a turn to get in, “bent access” i. Egyptians use straight on approach j. Way for them to proclaim wealth, prestige, and stability of city-state i. Glorifies gods k. Continued developing the form (ziggurat at Ur built 1000 years later) Akkadian 4. Art works a. Head of an Akkadian Ruler, ca. 2250-2200 BCE i. Wax and bronze poured into mold ii. Very stylized hair and beard iii. Very symmetrical 1. Rulers must look perfect iv. Modeled, structured cheek bones v. Damaged eye was likely deliberate b. Victory stele of Naramsin, ruled 2254-2218 BCE i. Sometimes used as grave markers ii. This one used to mark the actual place of victory iii. 6’6’’tall iv. Conquerors would take stele to their city and write of their greatness on it v. First time figures are integrated into a landscape vi. Naramsin is likely biggest guy on top, with hat, approaching sacred mountains vii. Two stars (gods) shining on Naramsin viii. Registers aren’t as defined, it’s a landscape with uneven ground ix. Soldiers 1. All looking up 2. All fit with good posture x. Pile of dead enemies at the bottom Ur 5. Art a. Ziggurat at Ur, c. 2100 BCE i. Much of it still left ii. Four corners conform to four points of direction iii. Mud baked brick iv. Teams of people to construct b/c so large Babylon 6. Art a. Stele of Hammurabi, ca. 1780 BCE b. 7 ft. tall c. Below image is code of Hammurabi i. Opens with hopes for justice and to destroy the wicked and the evil ii. Hopes the strong won’t oppress the weak iii. Property and commercial matters iv. Basis of our justice system v. Stylized again vi. Hammurabi is the guy standing, guy sitting is god Shamash 1. Confers greater authority for laws vii. God is wearing hat with rays of light shining off shoulders 1. Sitting on throne that resembles ziggurats Assyria 7. Architecture a. Assyria citadel and palace complex of Sargon II, Khorsabad, c. 721-705 BCE i. Goal is to show greatness and invincibility of Assyrian king ii. Designed defensively iii. Once in courtyard, “programs” of decoration depicting victory and heroism iv. 8. Art a. Lamassu (human-headed winged lion) in citadel of Sargon II, ca. 721- 705 BCE i. Very stylized ii. Warlike culture tries to articulate musculature (carved lines on side) iii. 5 legs, but you’re supposed to see it only from side or front so you only see four iv. Over 10 ft. tall b. Enemies crossing the Euphrates to escape Assyrian archers, relief from the palace of Assurnasirpal II, Nimrud, c. 875-60 BCE i. Citadel of enemy, swimmers getting away ii. Distance isn’t really a concern, pictures not to scale iii. One swimmer has an arrow in him 1. Other two have inflated bladders so they are floating not swimming 2. Main point is they won’t get to shelter iv. Form of propaganda c. Ashurbanipal with attendants and solder, relief from the palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Nimrud, ca. 875-860 BCE i. Wealth and status with all the things they carry d. Assurbanipal hunting lions, Nineveh, ca. 645-40 BCE i. Stylization and interest in musculature Neo-Babylonian 9. Art a. Processional way and Ishtar Gate, Babylon, ca. 575 i. Lions relief in brick, meaning art was carefully planned and then glazed to give color b. Ishtar gate, Babylon, ca. 575 BCE i. Series of animals around gate, associated with gods Persia 10.Art a. Plan, royal audience hall and stairway, palace of Darius I and Xerxes, Persepolis, ca. 521-465 BCE i. Circular black dots are columns ii. Unfilled dots are huge columns b. Actual royal audience hall and stairway, palace of Darius I and Xerxes, Persepolis, ca. 521-465 BCE i. Columns are 40. Ft tall ii. Four different types of capitals (tops), highly decorative iii. Very distinguished guards at the base iv. Difference from Assyrian 1. Gently rounded with less muscle 2. Less action, but still power and might c. Darius and Xerxes receiving tribute, relief on the stairway to the audience hall of Darius, Persepolis, 521-465 BCE i. Hierarchical composition d. Persians and Medes, relief from processional frieze on the side of the terrace of the apadana (audience hall) of Darius and Xerxes, Persepolis, ca. 421-465 BCE i. All connected in some way ii. Still stylized 11.Put stars beside complexes and decorative works a. Be thinking in terms of context and comparison i. What is its role in the palace or citadel? 12.Vocab a. Relief – carving on the surface of something b. Register – figures arranged on a horizontal line to organize the characters (animals on one line, then workers, then royalty) c. Hierarchical scale – bigger figure means more importance (also clothing) d. Ziggurat – high up e. Stylized – pattern adapted or abstracted from nature (kind of patterning that is still recognizable) f. Composite figure – part human part animal g. Amphra – typical jar used to hold wine h. Heraldic composition – creates visual stopping point
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