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RES 351 notes week 2 day 1

by: Cassidy_SWK2018

RES 351 notes week 2 day 1 RES 351


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First set of class notes!
Jesus and the Gospels
Dr. Shannon Grimes
Class Notes




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Popular in Religious and Ethical Studies

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy_SWK2018 on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RES 351 at Meredith College taught by Dr. Shannon Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Jesus and the Gospels in Religious and Ethical Studies at Meredith College.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
RES 351 8-30-16 1. Albert Schweitzer a. One of the first to study the historical Jesus b. Described the study as looking into a mirror, you see what you want to see 2. What is a Gospel? a. New genre for that time period b. Earliest Gospel written 40-50 years after Jesus’ death c. “Gospel” means “Good News” (Greek=euangelion) i. “eu” = good ii. “gelion” = message d. First Century message – the Messiah has come! Salvation is possible. i. Jews had waited for Him for a long time ii. Many thought he would be a political leader iii. He had to come from the line of King David iv. Goal of Messiah is to restore Israel’s independence v. Expecting a “Warrior King” 1. Israel at Jesus’ time is under Roman rule 2. Most Jews had this idea vi. Some Jews thought Messiah would be a spiritual leader and restore Israel’s righteousness vii. Often the political and spiritual ideas were blended together, Jewish views on this fell on a spectrum viii. The Messiah would lead the Jews to favor in God’s eyes so they would be restored ix. Jesus’s followers probably had more spiritual ideas x. Some saw the Messiah as bringing the end of the world, more apocalyptic view e. If you listen to what the Messiah says, you will be saved. That’s the “Good News”. 3. Jesus was controversial among Jews as well as Greeks and Romans a. “Messiah” means “King”, politically dangerous claim and led to His crucifixion b. There were several other Messiah candidates in the first couple centuries 4. Disciples took the message outside their own people and began spreading it around the Roman Empire 5. Jesus’ time was politically charged because it was preceded by 100 years of independence for Israel after hundreds of years of dependence 6. Missionaries carried Gospel to Jewish communities throughout Roman Empire a. Paul pushed this more than anyone b. Gentiles=non-Jews i. Gentiles were often present in Jewish synagogues seeking the wisdom of the ancient Jewish religion, which started the message spreading to the Gentiles th 7. Modern understandings of biography only date back to the 19 century a. Thus, the Gospels must be compared more to ancient biographies, called “Lives” b. Ancient biographies weren’t meant to be factual and verifiable, they were meant to glorify their subjects c. These bios often have virgin births, healings and miracles d. The Gospels have some similarities with these bios, but they also have a political and spiritual message that is unique i. They have more in common with these than previous Biblical writings 8. Source criticism (synoptic theory) a. What went into compiling a written text? b. Matthew and John were part of Jesus’ twelve disciples c. Mark was a companion of Peter, travelled with him and possibly a secretary i. Acts calls him John Mark d. Luke was a companion and student of Paul i. Paul never met Jesus and formerly persecuted the church before he met Jesus, then he became their most ardent missionary ii. Luke was a Greek physician e. Part of source criticism is trying to figure out which one came first i. Mark 1. likely came first 2. Shortest 3. Rough writing 4. 90% of Mark is reproduced in Matthew and Luke 5. Mark’s Gospel seems to be written in a time of war and tension, and he doesn’t seem to know that the main Jewish temple was destroyed in 70 CE, meaning his Gospel must have been written before that happened ii. Matthew 1. More elegant writing 2. Longer 3. More positive view of Jesus than Mark presents iii. Matthew and Luke 1. Luke and Matthew contain info not found in Mark 2. Because of different settings and wording for similar stories in Matthew and Luke, they seem to be drawing from the same source rather than one from the other a. Ex. Differences in Sermon on the Mount b. The source is called “Q” (“Quelle=source”) c. We don’t have this source 3. Scholars think Q is a collection of sayings of Jesus 4. Matthew and Luke each have unique material that the other doesn’t have, nor does any other Gospel f. 2 Source hypothesis i. Mark is the original source ii. Matthew and Luke used Mark and Q to construct their narrative Gospels iii. John is not involved in this 9. History of Gospels a. Mark – written 65-70 CE b. Matthew and Luke – written about 80-85 CE c. John – say 90-100 CE but some say 120 d. Jesus was born about 1 CE i. He was executed about 30 CE e. It seems less likely that the disciples actually wrote their Gospels, rather a student wrote them in the disciple’s name i. This is especially true for John, which is one reason why it is different 10. Presentation of Jesus a. John presents Jesus as God b. Mark presents Him as the most human c. Mark, Matthew, and Luke present Him as Savior and Messiah, but His divinity isn’t necessarily clear 11. Redaction Criticism a. To look at how things were edited i. Changes made ii. Stylistic differences iii. Different word choices 12. Vocab a. Christ means Messiah which means King b. Redaction = editing


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