biology 1st week
biology 1st week bio1134
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kezia Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio1134 at Mississippi State University taught by Martha Barton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO 8 PINCIPALS OF BIOLOGY 1. Cells (the simplest unit; the smallest living thing) 2. All living things use energy 3. Living organism interacts with their environment 4. Living organism maintain homeostasis 5. All living things grow and develop 6. All living things reproduce via genetic materials 7. Populations of organism evolve through generations 8. All species are related by an evolutionary. LEVEL OF BIOLOGY ORGANIZATION 1. Atom: simplest unit of all matters. 2. Molecules: 2 or more atoms connected by chemical bond. 3. Cells: the smallest living thing. 4. Tissue: Association of many cells that together form a specific function. 5. Organ: Association of tissues that together form a common function. (example: heart) 6. Organism: A living thing with internal order separated with the environment. 7. Population: a group of organism with same species that lives in the same location. 8. Community: All of the different populations that lives in the same place. 9. Ecosystem: a community of organism and their environment. 10.Biosphere: All places on earth where living things exist. MECHANISM OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES 1. Vertical descent New species evolve from pre-extinct species. Involves sexual reproduction. Involves natural selection for beneficial traits. Ex: evolution of horse from Hyracotherium to Equus. 2. Horizontal transfer Transfer of genetic material between different species. No sexual reproduction Involves natural selection for beneficial traits. CLASSIFICATION Taxonomy: the grouping of species based on common ancestry. Three Domains of Life 1. Bacteria Unicellular prokaryotes. 2. Archea Unicellular prokaryotes (often found in extreme environment) 3. Eukarya Unicellular and multicellular living things (ex: animal, plants, etc) Taxonomic Group 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species Binomial Nomenclature Genus name is capitalized Species name not capitalized Both are italicized Ex: Amphiprion ocellaris (clown fish) BIOLOGY AS SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE New knowledge is known it 2 ways: 1. Hypothesis testing 2. Discovery based science Stages of Hypothesis testing: 1. Observation 2. Make hypothesis (proposed explanation for an observation) 3. Do experiment Control group: the subjects are made to be in a constant situation. Experimental group: the subjects are made to have different (abnormal) condition to prove the hypothesis. 4. Analyzing data Independent variable: the tested (changed) variable Dependent variable: the measured variable 5. Conclusion Made to tell whether the hypothesis is being rejected or not. DISCOVERY BASED-SCIENCE Data are collected and analyzed without a hypothesis Examples: sequencing the human genome, discovery of the cystic fibrosis gene. SCIENTIFIC THEORY Theory: an explanation of some aspects of the natural world that is supported by a large body of evidence and has been repeatedly tested. (competed hypothesis has been ruled out) 2 key attributes of theory: Consistent with an overwhelming body of evidence Can be used to make valid predictions Example: DNA has the genetic material Evolution
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