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Introduction in the Study of Memory

by: Courtni Baldwin

Introduction in the Study of Memory Psy 383

Marketplace > New Mexico State University > Psychology (PSYC) > Psy 383 > Introduction in the Study of Memory
Courtni Baldwin
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes will be covered in our cumulative final exam.
Melissa J. Guynn
Class Notes
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Popular in Memory

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtni Baldwin on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 383 at New Mexico State University taught by Melissa J. Guynn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Memory in Psychology (PSYC) at New Mexico State University.

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Date Created: 08/31/16
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Memory The Science of Memory: • Human memory is always approach from a scientific perspective. o Based on systematic observation, experimentation, and theory o Having an unbiased attitude, a scientist whose opened minded o Follow logical conclusionatare based on evidence. • Empirical evidence: Data that is verifiable; meaning other scientist should be able to get the same results by conducting the same or at least similar experiment. (Empirical evidence are the building blocks for theories). o Experiments and empirical evidence form the basis of what we know about human memory from a scientific view. • The goal of memory science is to make generalizations about how memory works in the real world by doing controlled studies in a laboratory (such as studying a real world phenomena and remake the experiment to find answers that couldn't be re -created in the real world). o To re-create a phenomenon with an experiment it needs to be in a safe and controlled manner. o Control over the conditions is a safety measure, and also make causal connections between variables. The History of Memory Research: • Early humans from 40,000 years ago showed early signs of introspective behavior • Also early humans have been writing about memory, as the oldest writings in the world holds information about human memory. o Ebers Papyrus: 1500 bce, wrote an Egyptian medical manual that describes the. nature of memory deficits after injury. o In Greece, Plato and Aristotle described theories that were similar to the ideas todays. Philosophers and medical professionals wrote about the nature of memory during the ensuing millennia era. • Memory Metaphors: o Verbal models help demonstrate how the brain work o Plato the philosopher used two metaphors: First human memory can be compared to a wax tablet. Information gets written into memory as writing would get PRESSED into a wax tablet. (Metaphor means memory allows encoded, retrieved, and altered) Second, human memory can be compared to a bird cage as well. As we try to retrieve information it's not always the easiest task as the bird would be hard to catch. o 2500 years’ theorists thought the perfect metaphor for the modeling human memory was a teenager's room. It may seem disorganized but the teenager knows exactly where things are. • Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) o German psychologist that help define scientific study of memory. o First to use the scientific methods to study memory o First to use the experimental methods in his study to answer higher cognition questions. o Ebbinghaus only used one person during his studies, which is himself. o The experiment that he conducted have been tested on many other individuals and it was found that his experiments did in fact generalized with other people. • Hermann Ebbinghaus Experiment: o Taught himself nonsense syllables: meaningless syllables that can be given to volunteers to study that avoid the effect of meaning on memory entirely. (e.g. TOB or HIF)  Nonsense syllables follow the rules of english word formation, but they don't mean anything. Ebbinghaus choose these syllables as he didn’t want the meaning to shade his results. He thought meaningful stimuli would be more memorable than non-meaningful stimuli. o His list consists of 6-20 nonsense syllables. He studied the list until he could free - recall all of the nonsense syllables, and tested himself to see how much he knew.  He found that it was easier to master the shorter lists than the long er ones. o Next he experimented on the retention interval, which is the amount of time that lingers between the learning of the material and when recall for the material occurs.  He found that the longer the retention interval the higher percentage of him forgetting o Saving score is the amount of time it takes to relearn the material that has been taught. It was clear no matter how long the retention interval was; he was able to relearn the material faster than before. o Forgetting curve: is a graph that traces the decreasing line of memory performance over time. (The forgetting curve was affected by overlearning, preventing rapid forgetting).  Overlearning: is when a person studies still even after the material is learn and remembered 100% o Massed practice: study occurs in one block (cram) of time o Distributed practice: study is spread out during a time period. o Spacing effect: studying the same information over a spread out time period. • Mary Calkins (1863-1930): o American psychologist o Study the nature of associative learning (pair new knowledge to existing knowledge).  Paired-associate learning: learning the association between two items • Mary Calkins Experiments: o Participants study cue-target pairs of various types. There was word-word pairs, or syllables paired with words, syllables paired with pictures, words paired with pictures. o Calkins would then give the participant the first word or syllable and ask for what second item was.  Findings: the greater overlap between meaning in cue -target pairs, the easier it was for the participant to learn and retain the information.  In Short-term memory, Calkins found the recency effect. Recency effect is the observation that memory is usually superior for items at the end of a list then in the middle because of the maintenance of those items in working memory. • Behaviorism: a school of psychology. Main focus on the correlation of environmental inputs and the observable behavior of organisms such as human beings. o Predominant approach in psychology o Paradoxical approach to learning and memory o Stored information in the brain, is not directly observable, therefore behaviorism focused on learning but ignored memory. o Focus only on observable verifiable behavior  Findings: classical conditioning: a relation exists between a stimulus (ringing bell) and an outcome (getting food) the organism demonstrates a behavior or response (salivating). The response shows that the participant has learned the association between the stimulus and the outcome.  Operant conditioning: participant learn to perform responses or behaviors (pressing a bar) in response to a stimulus to achieve desirable outcomes (getting food) or avoid undesirable outcomes (getting an electric shock). • Frederic Bartlett (1886-1969): o British psychologist o Rejected behaviorism and methodology of Ebbinghaus o Studied meaningful stimuli such as stories and how expectations could lead people to distort their memories of the story being told.  Students that retold the stories in his experiment told a more rational version of the story. • Endel Tulving (1927-) o Canadian memory researcher. o Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience o Developed: encoding, retrieval isi better when it occurred in the same environment (condition) where they were encoded. Also, that long -term memory involves multiple systems, and introduced their concepts (episodic memory and semantic memory)  Episodic memory: personal events from a person's life  Semantic memory: memory of facts.  Both are considered to being long term memory systems but differ in the context they hold. • Cognitive Psychology: emphasizes hidden mental processes. o Started to study why different variables affected short -term and long-term memory o Focused on mind and internal representation sensations of memories. o Findings: Allowed mental processes and mind to become appropriate topics for psychology.  Postulated that mental states are causal, and not cause by behavior.  Addressed the issues of language, attention, and decision making.  Led different ways to address the issue of representation and study of memory that was thought "not-observable" through experimentation. • Cognitive Neuroscience: The study of the role of the brain and its function producing cognition. o Neuroimaging allows us to observe the intact living brain as it learns, remembers, communicates, and contemplates. Neuroimaging provided understanding of the workings of the brain and why things process the w ay they do in the brain.


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