PSYC 4070 weeks 1 and 2 notes
PSYC 4070 weeks 1 and 2 notes PSYC 4070
Popular in Development over the Lifespan
Popular in Psychology
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda H. on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4070 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Rosenthal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Development over the Lifespan in Psychology at Louisiana State University.
Reviews for PSYC 4070 weeks 1 and 2 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/31/16
Notes 8/22 Chapter 1 Psychology is science because it uses the scientific method Science and psychology are self-correcting People are interested in child development When babies are born do they perceive things as adults do? o An infant’s world is one of “blooming, buzzing confusion” Habituation o Simplest form of learning that exists o Learning to ignore a constant stimulus When a baby cries, adults will do just about everything because you can’t ignore a baby’s cry o Babies can hear ALL frequencies Farsighted—can’t see stuff up close, but can see things far away Nearsighted—can’t see stuff far away, but can see stuff up close INFANTS ARE VERY NEARSIGHTED o Infants can focus best on objects that are 8-20 inches closest to their face Why has nature set this up to where infants can see that distance? What’s the most important end of the person? o Face Infants have as good a sense of taste as adults do How old is a person when they have their first basic knowledge about math and mathematical things? Theory—integrated principles that explain and predict why things occur Hypothesis—testable, possible relationship; SPECIFIC prediction what happens if theory is true Scientific method—a set of tools that a scientist uses to collect information IMPARTIALLY Psychologists don’t control what’s studied as much as other scientists o Psychologists study people 5 steps in scientific method: o 1. Devise a research question from previous studies or scientific observations Have to have a purpose in mind o 2. Develop a hypothesis—as testable prediction o 3. Test the hypothesis—design/conduct experiment unobtrusive observations in psychology—why? o 4. Draw conclusions—does data support hypothesis or not? Use statistics Seeing if the control group is big enough to say it is real o 5. Publicize your results Other scientists must EVALUATE and REPLICATE To describe development science focuses on typical patterns (normative data) and individual variations in those patterns (ideographic data) Research Design o Plan to conduct experiment—evaluate a hypothesis—what questions to be answered, how participants selected, how data is collected and interpreted and how valid conclusions can be drawn Hypothesis o Educated guess that states a CAUSAL relationship between 2 variables Independent or dependent variable Independent variable (IV) causes the dependent variable to change Dependent Variable (DV) depends on the independent variable to set its value o An increase in frustration (IV) CAUSES and increase in aggression (DV) o Change in IV causes the DV to change Controlled Experiment o Control things so that only the IV changes o Then we’re sure IV causes the DV (behavior) to change Developmental Hypothesis—states CAUSAL relationship between 2 variables where IV is usually Age Developmental Research Design o Plan for experiment to evaluate a developmental hypothesis how people change with age 1. Controlled cross sectional experiment Best way to gather information Short, quick, and simple 3 kids across 3 grade levels 2. Longitudinal Design Takes the longest time to complete o Minimum amount of time (4 years for “Moe”) Follows one single child from 2 , 4 , and 6 grade o An increase in age leads to an increase in intelligence Measures the affects of aging of a person Disadvantages: o More expensive, slow, can separate aging from history 3. Cross sequential study Combination of Controlled cross sectional experiment and longitudinal design Measures 2 children over 2 years instead of 4 The more groups, the better the results Quicker and less expensive Partial individual record 4. Correlations and Hypotheses Correlations o Positive: variables increase or decrease together o Negative: 1 variable increases, the other decreases Correlation coefficients range from -1 to +1 (no sign = plus sign) Correlation DOES NOT imply causality Controlled experiments distinguish correlation from causation o Control: the difference between experimental and control groups is the level of independent variable Chapter 2 1. Theory of Development Interrelated constructs, definitions, and propositions Systematically specifies relations among other variables Theories explain phenomena o Theories compete, good ones persist 2. Process Predictions come from the theory—hypotheses Hypotheses are tested in research A theory is altered to generate new hypotheses o Theory: orderly, integrates statements to predict a certain behavior o Theories help understand development and know what is important ***DANGER: CONFIRMATION BIAS*** Researchers get personally involved with and committed to theories they proposed/support. This makes objectivity difficult 3. Whys and Solutions Grand developmental theories are comprehensive Behaviorism: stimuli and behaviors are linked with reinforcement NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT THE SAME AS PUNISHMENT 4. Positive Reinforcement Desired response—a positive stimulus is added to the environment BF Skinner—most famous behaviorist SUBJECTIVE not objective; directly observable things 5. Negative Reinforcement When the animal perform a desired behavior, a negative stimulus is removed from the environment Positive punishment: when an animal does a forbidden behavior, a negative stimulus is added to the environment Negative punishment: if the animal does something bad, take away something it likes Reinforcers can change over time Timeout is a behavioral technique to control children’s behavior Freud’s Developmental Theory Focused on studying consciousness that has 3 levels o Freud: personality is made up on unconscious mind How to access it Dreams, slips of the tongue, free association Psychoanalysis—understand present adult behavior through past behavior
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'