New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 4070 weeks 1 and 2 notes

by: Amanda H.

PSYC 4070 weeks 1 and 2 notes PSYC 4070

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Psychology > PSYC 4070 > PSYC 4070 weeks 1 and 2 notes
Amanda H.
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Development over the Lifespan

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Development over the Lifespan notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes are from chapter 1 and some of chapter 2 from Unit 1 for our first test.
Development over the Lifespan
Dr. Rosenthal
Class Notes




Popular in Development over the Lifespan

Popular in Psychology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda H. on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4070 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Rosenthal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Development over the Lifespan in Psychology at Louisiana State University.


Reviews for PSYC 4070 weeks 1 and 2 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/31/16
Notes 8/22 Chapter 1  Psychology is science because it uses the scientific method  Science and psychology are self-correcting  People are interested in child development  When babies are born do they perceive things as adults do? o An infant’s world is one of “blooming, buzzing confusion”  Habituation o Simplest form of learning that exists o Learning to ignore a constant stimulus  When a baby cries, adults will do just about everything because you can’t ignore a baby’s cry o Babies can hear ALL frequencies  Farsighted—can’t see stuff up close, but can see things far away  Nearsighted—can’t see stuff far away, but can see stuff up close  INFANTS ARE VERY NEARSIGHTED o Infants can focus best on objects that are 8-20 inches closest to their face  Why has nature set this up to where infants can see that distance?  What’s the most important end of the person? o Face  Infants have as good a sense of taste as adults do  How old is a person when they have their first basic knowledge about math and mathematical things?  Theory—integrated principles that explain and predict why things occur  Hypothesis—testable, possible relationship; SPECIFIC prediction what happens if theory is true  Scientific method—a set of tools that a scientist uses to collect information IMPARTIALLY  Psychologists don’t control what’s studied as much as other scientists o Psychologists study people  5 steps in scientific method: o 1. Devise a research question from previous studies or scientific observations  Have to have a purpose in mind o 2. Develop a hypothesis—as testable prediction o 3. Test the hypothesis—design/conduct experiment  unobtrusive observations in psychology—why? o 4. Draw conclusions—does data support hypothesis or not?  Use statistics  Seeing if the control group is big enough to say it is real o 5. Publicize your results  Other scientists must EVALUATE and REPLICATE  To describe development science focuses on typical patterns (normative data) and individual variations in those patterns (ideographic data)  Research Design o Plan to conduct experiment—evaluate a hypothesis—what questions to be answered, how participants selected, how data is collected and interpreted and how valid conclusions can be drawn  Hypothesis o Educated guess that states a CAUSAL relationship between 2 variables  Independent or dependent variable  Independent variable (IV) causes the dependent variable to change  Dependent Variable (DV) depends on the independent variable to set its value o An increase in frustration (IV) CAUSES and increase in aggression (DV) o Change in IV causes the DV to change  Controlled Experiment o Control things so that only the IV changes o Then we’re sure IV causes the DV (behavior) to change  Developmental Hypothesis—states CAUSAL relationship between 2 variables where IV is usually Age  Developmental Research Design o Plan for experiment to evaluate a developmental hypothesis how people change with age 1. Controlled cross sectional experiment  Best way to gather information  Short, quick, and simple  3 kids across 3 grade levels 2. Longitudinal Design  Takes the longest time to complete o Minimum amount of time (4 years for “Moe”)  Follows one single child from 2 , 4 , and 6 grade o An increase in age leads to an increase in intelligence  Measures the affects of aging of a person  Disadvantages: o More expensive, slow, can separate aging from history 3. Cross sequential study  Combination of Controlled cross sectional experiment and longitudinal design  Measures 2 children over 2 years instead of 4  The more groups, the better the results  Quicker and less expensive  Partial individual record 4. Correlations and Hypotheses  Correlations o Positive: variables increase or decrease together o Negative: 1 variable increases, the other decreases  Correlation coefficients range from -1 to +1 (no sign = plus sign)  Correlation DOES NOT imply causality  Controlled experiments distinguish correlation from causation o Control: the difference between experimental and control groups is the level of independent variable Chapter 2 1. Theory of Development  Interrelated constructs, definitions, and propositions  Systematically specifies relations among other variables  Theories explain phenomena o Theories compete, good ones persist 2. Process  Predictions come from the theory—hypotheses  Hypotheses are tested in research  A theory is altered to generate new hypotheses o Theory: orderly, integrates statements to predict a certain behavior o Theories help understand development and know what is important ***DANGER: CONFIRMATION BIAS***  Researchers get personally involved with and committed to theories they proposed/support. This makes objectivity difficult 3. Whys and Solutions  Grand developmental theories are comprehensive  Behaviorism: stimuli and behaviors are linked with reinforcement NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT THE SAME AS PUNISHMENT 4. Positive Reinforcement  Desired response—a positive stimulus is added to the environment  BF Skinner—most famous behaviorist  SUBJECTIVE not objective; directly observable things 5. Negative Reinforcement  When the animal perform a desired behavior, a negative stimulus is removed from the environment  Positive punishment: when an animal does a forbidden behavior, a negative stimulus is added to the environment  Negative punishment: if the animal does something bad, take away something it likes  Reinforcers can change over time  Timeout is a behavioral technique to control children’s behavior Freud’s Developmental Theory  Focused on studying consciousness that has 3 levels o Freud: personality is made up on unconscious mind  How to access it  Dreams, slips of the tongue, free association  Psychoanalysis—understand present adult behavior through past behavior


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.