Govt 2305 Chapter 1 Review Key Terms
Govt 2305 Chapter 1 Review Key Terms Govt 2305
Austin Community College
Popular in United States Government
Popular in Government
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer D on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Govt 2305 at Austin Community College taught by Lynn Lehle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see United States Government in Government at Austin Community College.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
U.S. Govt 2305 Chapter 1 Review Key Terms Lynn Lehle 1. Institution: an ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society Social Conflict: disagreements among people in a society over what the society’s priorities should be Ex: Marriage, Education 2. Politics: the process of resolving conflicts over how society should use its scarce resources and who should receive various benefits, such as public health care and public higher education. “Who gets what, when, where, and how” –Harold Laswell Dividing scarce resources 3. Government: the individuals and institutions that make society’s rules and possess the power and authority to enforce those rules. 4. Power: the ability to influence the behavior of others, usually through the use of force, persuasion, or rewards. Using force to achieve what they want to gain 5. Authority: the ability to legitimately exercise power, such as the power to make and enforce laws. Accepted by society as moral and correct 6. Public Services: essential services that individuals cannot provide for themselves, such as building and maintaining roads, establishing welfare programs, operating public schools, and preserving national parks. Autocracy: a form of government in which the power and authority of the government are in the hands of a single person. Health, safety, and welfare Ex: Firefighters 7. Monarchy: a form of autocracy in which a king, queen, emperor, empress, tsar, or tsarina is the highest authority in the government. Monarchs usually obtain their power through inheritance. Bloodline; bestowed upon them (royalty) 8. Divine Right Theory: the theory that a monarch’s right to rule was derived directly from God rather than from the consent of the people. God given right to rule King George III 9. Dictator: a form of government in which absolute power is exercise by an individual or group whose power is not supported by tradition. Rule by force i. North Sudan’s President Omar al Baschir a. Crimes against humanity b. Attacked his own people ii. Adolph Hitler iii. Joseph Stalin iv. Saddam Hussain 10. Democracy: a system of government in which the people have ultimate political authority. The word is derived from the Greek demos (“the people”) and kratia (“rule”). Rule by people People are sovereign 11. Direct Democracy: a system of government in which political decisions are made by the people themselves rather than by elected representatives. This form of government was practiced in some parts of ancient Greece. 12. Representative Democracy: a form of democracy in which the will of the majority is expressed through groups of individuals elected by the people to act as their representatives. 13. Limited Government: a form of government based on the principle that the powers of government should be clearly limited either through a written document or through wide public understanding, it is characterized by institutional checks to ensure that government serves public rather than private interests. Nobles forced King John to accept the Magna Carta (Great Britain) “Your home will be your castle, I will not cross the threshold unless necessary” – King John Sort of like a warrant 14. Bicameral Legislature: the name of the national legislative body in countries governed by a parliamentary system, such as Great Britain and Canada 15. Social Contract: a voluntary agreement among individuals to create a government and to give that government adequate power to secure the mutual protection and welfare of all individuals. Mayflower Compact Work together; make laws for the common good Law and order 16. Natural Rights: rights that are not bestowed by government but are inherent within every man, woman, and child by virtue of the fact that he or she is a human being. Life, liberty, and property. – John Locke 17. Political Culture: the set of ideas, values, and attitudes about government and the political process held by a community or a nation. Set of shared political beliefs and values 18. Liberty: the freedom of individuals to believe, act, and express themselves as they choose so long as doing so doses not infringe on the rights of other individuals in the society. 19. Equality: a concept that holds, at a minimum, that all people are entitled to equal protection under the law Capitalism: an economic system based on the private ownership of wealth- producing property, free markets, and freedom of contract. The privately owned corporation is the preeminent capitalist institution. Tea Part Movement: a grassroots conservative movement that arose in 2009 after Barack Obama became president. The movement opposes big government and current levels of taxation, and also rejects political compromise. Economic equality? Access to health care? 20. Ideology: generally, a system of political ideas that are rooted in religious or philosophical beliefs concerning human nature, society, and government. 21. Liberals: a set of political beliefs that include the advocacy of active government, including government intervention to improve the welfare of individuals and to protect civil rights. Believe in active government President Franklin Roosevelt 22. Conservatism: a set of political beliefs that include a limited role for the national government in helping individuals and in the economic affairs of the nation, as well as support for traditional values and lifestyles. Conservative Movement: an ideological movement that arose in the 1950s and 1960s and continues to shape conservative beliefs. Progressivism: an alternative, more popular term for the set of political beliefs also known as liberalism. Moderates: persons whose views fall in the middle of the political s[spectrum. Socialism: a political ideology that lies to the left of liberalism on the traditional political spectrum. Socialists are scarce in the United State but common in many other countries. Libertarianism: the belief that government should do as little as possible, not only in the economic sphere, but also in regulating morality and personal behavior. Believe in strong defense and limited government Trump = Conservative Hillary = Liberal The Traditional Political Spectrum LEFT CENTER RIGHT Socialist Liberal Moderate Conservative Libertarian Democrats Republicans
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