Psych Notes Days 1-3
Psych Notes Days 1-3 PSY 111
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christa Aaron on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 111 at Illinois State University taught by Jeffrey Wagman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Psychology 111 Day 1: We’re going to take a field trip to the Children’s Discovery Museum! Office Hours for Andy Leckie (firstname.lastname@example.org) Thursday at 2pm outside Dr. Wagman’s office Things we’ll learn about: ● Psychology is the SCIENTIFIC study of experience and behavior ○ (behaviors include sitting, eating, jet lag) ● A survey of influences on experience and behavior ○ Areas of Psychology: Covnitive, biological, abnormal, social, developmental ● Studying and Testtaking Tips: ○ You learn better when you think about what the information means (so connect the information you’re learning to something that you already know) ○ Don’t copy notes word for word (paraphrase. This makes your notes meaningful to you) ○ Studying: think about what your notes mean and come up with original examples. ○ Think about your own personal experience and what they have to do with what you’re studying. ○ Use acronyms ○ Think about the things often: do your homework and come up with new, original examples. Refresh your memory of these things often. ○ Use flashcards: make sure that you don’t just look at a flashcard and flip it over. Make a point of writing down the questions and answers you do not know. Day 2 ● Cognitive, biological, developmental, social, abnormal ○ Areas of psychology ● The answer to every interesting question about experience and behavior is the same… ○ “It depends” ○ On what? Why? How? ■ Answers are complicated because a) experience and behavior are complicated and b) scientists are always cautious in drawing conclusions ● We study “normal” people because ○ 1. The majority of people don’t have psychological disorders ○ 2. You need to have a case to compare atypical cases to ● 3 Historical debates ○ 1. The MindBody Problem (mind isn’t physical but body is. How do they influence each other?) ○ Nature vs. Nurture (are we genetically wired one way or are we molded by our experiences?) ○ Freewill vs. Determinism (do we have choices or are they determined for you based on your situation?) ● Memory Palace: Create a story with ridiculous aspects, involving something you’re trying remember. This helps concrete the knowledge in your mind. Day 3: ● Psychologists want to know what, why, and how our behaviors are affected by our experiences. ● Humans aren’t the only things that “behave”. Animals also experience and behave ○ Studying animals has helped us to understand the way our brains are organized and how our brains may react to certain situations ● Psychologists look for answers using the scientific method ○ 1: Observe ○ 2: Find regularities (relationships) ○ 3: Come up with a hypothesis/prediction (i.e. “I bet Event A always happens before Event B”) ○ 4: Test your hypothesis ● In Action: ○ 1: Children are sometimes violent to each other ○ 2: Maybe it’s related to violent video games or movies ○ 3: Playing violent video games causes children to be violent to each other ■ You have to define terms in hypotheses so you can measure your results. For example, What counts as violence? Which games are the violent ones? Which age group counts as children? How long do children need to play? How much time occurs between gaming and violence? ● Correlational research ○ We see if there is a relationship between a circumstance and a behavior y is the number of violent acts x is the number of hours playing video games ○ This would mean there is a positive correlation between the number of hours playing video games and number of violent acts ○ Negative Correlation No correlation ● Finding a correlation allows you to make a prediction ● It does not allow you to determine a cause (i.e. I can’t say “Oh, clearly violent video games cause violence in children.” I can only say “There seems to be a positive correlation between violent video games and violence in children”.) ● CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSALITY ● In order to determine causes, you need to do an experiment ● Experiment: ○ What’s being changed is the independent variable ○ What’s being measured is the dependent variable ■ We have 1 group we think will change, 1 group we think won’t, and a group that continues in normalcy (group 1 does violent video games, group 2 does nonviolent games, and group 3 continues with a normal school schedule) ○ You need a control group ● List of Ethical Principles ○ 1. Risk has to be kept to a minimum and it must be justified ○ 2. The participant (or guardian of participant) must agree to participate in the experiment ○ 3. All data recorded must be confidential ■ ...but nonhumans can’t give their consent to participate. ■ There are strict guidelines for the ethical treatment of animals in research ■ Unfortunately, it’s still controversial.
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