Week 2 Notes for ANEQ 346 Equine Disease
Week 2 Notes for ANEQ 346 Equine Disease ANEQ 346
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alia Coughlan on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 346 at Colorado State University taught by Dr Hess in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Equine Disease in Equine Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Week 2 Notes for ANEQ 346 Equine Disease Management 8/29 Lecture 3 Disease Mechanics Inflammation A protective response of the body to an injury Signs of Inflammation: Redness (hard to see with a horse) Swelling Heat Pain Loss of Function *Diarrhea is a manifestation of inflammation *Pus = Accumulation of white blood cells Tissue Response Acute Inflammation Happens in hours Initial response (nonspecific) to tissue damage Restitution Damaged tissue replacement by organized tissue that is identical in function and structure Ideal Outcome Destroyed cells regenerate Fibrous Repair (Scar Tissue) Cells cannot regrow Chronic Inflammation Tissue doesn’t heal properly Triggers for Acute Inflammation Infection: bacteria (ex: strangles, punctures), virus (ex: rhino), parasites (ex: worms) Trauma Physical and Chemical Tissue Necrosis Foreign Bodies Immune Reaction Details of Acute Inflammation early response to an injurious agent Steps: Alteration in blood flow Plasma proteins & leukocytes (white blood cells) leave circulation Emigration of leukocytes to site of the injury Vascular Phase Vasoconstriction Dilation of arterioles, capillaries, and post capillary venules Increases blood flow *Swelling reaches its peak in 23 days, then decreases *Phagocytosis = eats foreign bacteria, activates leukocytes *Emigration = the passage of inflammatory leukocytes between endothelial cells and adjacent tissues Types of Leukocytes Neutrophils High in bacterial infection Ingest foreign material Promotes inflammation Short lived *Pyrogen = substance that increases local temperature *Macrophages = participate in inflammation by making it longer and stimulate immune response Basophils dilate blood vessels Eosinophils involved in allergic reactions Lymphocytes predominant in viral infections Exsudates Fluids that contain protein, water and salt Dilute produced toxins Natures of Exsudates Purulent = Pus Fibrinous = Fiberon (no bacteria) Serous = Occurs around an organ Hemorrhagic Mucous *Inflammation VS Infection = Able to have inflammation without an infection *Hemorrhagic = Lots of red blood cells Regeneration of Tissue Epithelium Muscle Tissue Nerves = Difficult to heal if they are cell bodies Connective Tissue Cartilage & Bone = Hard to heal because horses are hard to immobilize *Whenever possible, you want the lesion to heal by primary closure (sutures) Chronic Inflammation Persistence of the injury Migration of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes Rich in blood vessels and fibroblasts Immune reaction *Adipocines = fat cells, related to inflammation Ex: Obesity is considered to be a chronic inflammatory state *Necrosis = death of cells in the body Ex: Hoof abscess, twisted small intestine *Edema = the accumulation of fluid between cells Ex: Malnutrition, heart disorders Shock Acute and progressive failure of the peripheral circulation ex: purple mucous membranes Signs of Shock: Rapid breathing Cool skin Apathy Sweating Causes of Inflammatory Shock: Trauma Massive Hemorrhage Infections (toxin) Cardiac Failure *Neoplasia = the formation of a skin growth Neoplasia Normal: controlled cell division to maintain homeostasis Abnormal: cells divide in autonomic way Benign: noncancerous, slow growth Malign: rapid growth, infiltrates the tissue, can lead to death *Light colored horses are more affected by neoplasms Neoplasms in Short Causes: sun, radiation, chemicals, virus Diagnosis: biopsy Treatment: Removal of neoplasm 8/31 Lecture 4 Equine Dentistry Guest Lecturers: Drs. Jim and Patty Latham Dental Terminology: Maxillary = Upper jaw Diastema = Spaces between teeth Mandibular = Lower jaw Infundibulum = Filled spaces in incisor Occlusal Surface = Chewing surface Quids = Chewed wads of feed Buccal = Towards the cheek Apex = Root tip Lingual = Towards the tongue Cementum = Protects the teeth Palatal = Towards the palate Floating = Removal of points of teeth Crown = Visible part of the tooth Galvayne’s Grove = Grove down center of tooth *Equine teeth are hypsodont (longcrowned) that continuously erupt Erupt about 1/8” per year *Anisognathia = Upper teeth are wider, stronger and bigger than the bottom teeth Eruption of Deciduous Incisors: Deciduous: Rule of 9’s Central by 9 days Intermediate by 9 weeks Corner by 9 months Horses are not born with teeth Premolars at 2 weeks Deciduous teeth protect and guide the permanent teeth Eruption of Permanent Teeth: Permanent Incisors: Centrals: 2.5 years, in wear at 3 years Intermediate: 3.5 years, in wear at 4 years Corners: 4.5 years, in wear at 5 years Develop behind the deciduous teeth Permanent Canines: Develop around 5 years (males) Only 1020% of mares have them Last teeth to erupt Permanent Cheek Teeth: PM1(wolf tooth): At 56 months Premolars: 2.5 years, 3 years, 4 years Molars: 1 : 1 year 2 : 2 years rd 3 : 3.54 years *Teething happens between ages 2 and 5 years Horses are extra sensitive at this time *Horse age can be determined by teeth Incisors eruptions and shape can assist in giving age Can only give age after 5 years Signs of Dental Disease: Excess saliva Slow chewing Quidding (dropping feed) Resistance to pressure Soaking hay in water Weight loss Mouth smells bad Sometimes there are no signs Examinations: External Exam Swellings Discharge Draining Tracts Visual Incisor Exam Color Mobility Surface Texture Gingivitis *The goal of Equine Field Dentistry is to perform a complete dental exam. IMPORTANT!!!!! Proper use of equipment is essential *Overbites are common, however under bites are not common in horses Floating Teeth Why? Check cheek abrasions and ulcerations from sharp points of teeth What is does? Reduces pain or discomfort Improves horse performance *Use water to protect tooth from overheating Dentistry Problems and Diseases Cribbing Lower incisors will overgrow and will need to be treated IncisorLuxation Fractures Incisors partially dislocate w/ or w/o a jaw fracture Usually happens to young horses Hypodontia Missing teeth due to trauma to deciduous tooth and permanent tooth bud Supernumerary Incisors Upper permanent incisors may protrude rostrally and displace teeth Periodontal Disease 60% of horses over age 15 have it Extreme form of gingivitis Painful and leads to tooth loss Secondary Periodontal Disease Happens anywhere feed or hay can be trapped Antibiotics and flushes by a DVM will help Senile Diastema Last teeth to erupt can’t fit into the space provided Can lead to periodontal disease EOTRH Cementum starts overproducing and causes teeth to rot from the inside Happens to horses that are under stress Ex: stallions, race horses, etc Subtle discoloration and swelling of gingiva Gingival recession Infected teeth need to be removed *Cementum is like human enamel Disease of the Occlusal Surface Pulpitis = inflammation of the pulp cavity Infections spread from pulp to root canal Infundibular Cavities (Upper Cheek) Inadequate filling with cementum Happens if caps are removed too early with blood loss to the infundibulum Tooth Extraction (Exodontia) – When to Remove Tooth root abscess seen on Xray Tooth mobility Severe periodontal disease Retained deciduous tooth causes damage or displacement of permanent teeth Misaligned tooth causing damage or displacement Overall Facts Look often Manage teeth for function and comfort Control malocclusions 9/2 Absent from class
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