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American History since 1877 Week 1 Notes

by: Nicki Barr

American History since 1877 Week 1 Notes hist 1152

Marketplace > Columbus State Community College > History > hist 1152 > American History since 1877 Week 1 Notes
Nicki Barr
Columbus State Community College
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This is the first week of notes over the Reconstruction and Industrialization.
american history since 1877
Dr. Stephen Pfeffer
Class Notes
history, american




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicki Barr on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1152 at Columbus State Community College taught by Dr. Stephen Pfeffer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see american history since 1877 in History at Columbus State Community College.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Industrialization 1877-1900 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 5:50 PM Tensions- rural vs. urban, modernization vs. traditional way of life, big business vs. labor. Second Industrial Revolution- 3 key aspects: 1. Integrated communication and transportation networks. 2. Electricity 3. Scientific research and innovation Railroads- heavily funded by government, big government project. Corrupt, farmers did not like because privately owned and rates varied randomly. Immigrant Labor- Chinese immigrants built railroads. Many Americans disliked Chinese immigrants; they were targeted. Thomas Edison- created the lightbulb and the phonograph. Alexander Graham Bell- invented the telephone Entrepreneurs- sometimes called "robber barons" - Rockefeller: standard oil (monopoly) - Carnegie: steel - J.P. Morgan: finance (born into wealth) Standard Oil- vertical integration: owned every process; oil fields, railroads, refinery. In 1892 the Ohio supreme court broke up standard oil's monopoly. Gospel of Wealth- (Carnegie) believed that he deserved his wealth. Carnegie and Rockefeller gave away their wealth while living and after they died, because they thought it was their duty to help the less fortunate. The Gilded Age- term comes from Mark Twain's 1873 book called the Gilded Age: A tale of today, that ridiculed those in power and that brought attention to the massive social problems of the day brought about by the rapid changes in American Society. The era was marked by huge disparities in wealth. The Working Class- long hours, hard work, tough conditions. Child Labor- many injuries, movement to ban child labor. Worked in dangerous conditions. Strikes and Worker's Rights- - The great railroad strike of 1877 - The rise of the unions 1. The knights of labor (union)(focus on 1 and 2 more) - The Haymarket riot 1886 (Chicago, very violent) 2. Samuel Gompers and AFL 1886 (focus on 1 and 2 more) 3. IWW "wobblies" formed in 1893 "class struggle" were socialist/communist, didn’t like capitalist. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877- had pay cuts, which led to violence. Started in West Virginia. The strike failed. It created a sense of a movement in working class. The Knights of Labor- open to everyone, as long as they were in the working class. One of their big platforms was establishing an 8 hr. work day. They tried to negotiate with businesses first and if that failed, then they would go on strike. Samuel Gompers and the AFL 1886- only open to skilled men workers. The Homestead Strike 1892- carnegie steel plant workers went on strike. The plant fired all the on strike workers and hired new non- union workers. There was no union at the plant until 1937. The Pullman Strike 1894- workers had to live in company housing and had to pay expensive rent. They were also paid less, low wages. Eugene V. Debs- american railway union, ran for president 5 times. He was a socialist. He was one of the leaders of the railway strike. The strike was shut down. He was arrested and spent 6 months in jail. Business- Labor Tensions in the 19th Century- - Labor strikes in the 19th century tended to be violent, bloody affairs. - In many cases the federal government sided with the business. - In many cases the federal government sided with the business. - Fear of spread of socialism and communism among the labor movement. Reconstruction 1865-1877 Sunday, August 28, 20168:59 PM Southern Devastation U.S. Government - what to do with newly freed slaves, how to bring the confederate states back into us. The President vs. Congress: Emancipation Proclamation 1863- freed southern slaves The Freedman's Bureau 1865-1872- helps former slaves with food, clothes, medical, broke up land and gave land to slaves. Presidential Reconstruction- 1st 2 years Lincoln's 10% Plan- if southern states wanted to rejoin union, 10% of voting males could vote for state to apply to be in the union. Radical Republicans- blamed the south for the war and wanted to make them pay. Wade-Davis Bill- made it difficult for south to rejoin the union. Lincoln vetoed the bill. Lincoln Killed April 14,1865 Andrew Johnson- southern, but supported the union, became president after Lincoln. Presidential Reconstruction- 13th amendment ended slavery, amnesty for former confederates, "black codes", nothing changed. Black Codes- said what black people could or could not do in each state. Re-established white control. Congressional Reconstruction- also known as radical reconstitution. 14th amendment, Military reconstruction act (1867). 14th Amendment (1866)- if you were born in the U.S. then you are an American citizen. Military Reconstruction Act 1867- Divided former confederacy into 4 military districts, to protect ALL citizens, ensure laws were followed in the south. 15th Amendment 1870- African American men were allowed to vote. (led to the downfall of Andrew Johnson) African Americans were voted into Congress: Backlash- white men did not like the new freedoms of African American's. KKK (1866)- used violence and intimidation against African Americans and southern white republicans. Started in Tennessee and went all the way into the deep south. Federal government sent in troops to stop the KKK Compromise of 1877- Hayes will become president if the union troops get out of the south. End of reconstruction. - Hayes: runs for president 1876; becomes president. - Tilden: ran against Hayes. 1870's- attention turned away from the re-construction. Southern whites- gained control, all white govt., denied African Americans the right to vote, "Jim Crow" laws, no federal govt. to stop them. > close election, house of reps choose; 15 member committee History Page 1


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