Psych 1560 Ch 1 Notes
Psych 1560 Ch 1 Notes Psych 1560
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Psychology Ch. 1 Module 1 – Psychologists at Work Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes - Encompasses thoughts, emotions, perceptions, reasoning processes, memories, and biological activities - Describes, predicts, and explains human behavior and mental processes o Psychologists help to change and improve lives of people and world in which they live - Not all about outward behavior - Thinking cannot be completely accurately studied Subfields of Psychology Behavioral genetics: studies inheritance of traits related to behavior Behavioral neuroscience: examines biological basis of behavior Clinical psychology: study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders Clinical neuropsychology: relationship between bio factors and psychological disorders Cognitive psychology: study of higher mental processes Counseling psychology: primary focus on educational, social, and career adjustment problems Cross-cultural psychology: compares and contrasts psychological functioning throughout various cultures and ethnic groups Developmental psychology: examinations of how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death Educational psychology: focuses on teaching and learning processes, such as the relationship between school performance and motivation Environmental psychology: considers relationship between people and their physical environment Evolutionary psychology: considers how our genetic inheritance from our ancestors influences behavior Experimental psychology: studies the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world Forensic psychology: focus on legal issues Health psychology: explores relationship between physical ailments or disease and psychological factors Industrial/organizational psychology: psychology of the workplace Personality psychology: focuses on differentiating traits of people and the consistency in their behavior over time Program evaluation: assesses large-scale programs to determine whether they are effective Psychology of women: focuses on issues specific to women School psychology: counseling of children in schools who have academic or emotional problems Social psychology: study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others Sport psychology: application of psychology to athletics and exercise Where do U.S. psychologists work? - University/4-year college (26%) - Hospital/other health service (25%) - Government/VA medical center (17%) - Business/nonprofit (11%) - School/other educational (8%) - Medical school/other academic (7%) - Independent practice (6%) Education - PhD (doctor of philosophy) requires dissertation based on original research - PsyD (doctor of psychology) focuses on treatment of psychological disorders Module 2 – A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future The Roots of Psychology Structuralism: (Wundt) Focus on uncovering fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other mental states and activities Introspection: Used to study structure of mind - Not scientific technique Functionalism: (James) What mind does and role behavior plays in allowing people to adapt to environments - Nature vs. Nurture Gestalt psychology: (Ebbinghaus & Wertheimer) organization of perception and thinking as a whole sense - Perception/understanding of objects greater & means more than individual elements that make up our perception Today’s Perspectives Neuroscience: Biological functions; behavior from perspective of brain - Cures for certain types of deafness & drug treatments for certain types of mental health disorders Psychodynamic: (Freud) unconscious inner forces motivate behavior Behavioral: (Watson & Skinner) focus of study should be observable, measurable behavior - Mental disorder treatments, aggression curbing, sexual issues, ending drug addiction - Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, positive & negative reinforcement/punishment Cognitive: how people think, understand, and know about world Humanistic: (Rogers & Maslow) individuals naturally strive to develop, grow, and control their lives and behavior - Free will Key Issues in Psychology Nature vs. Nurture - What behavior is due to o Genetically determined nature (heredity) o Influences of physical and social environments of children - Interplay between nature and nurture Conscious vs. Unconscious Causes of Behavior - Behavior produced by? o Forces we are fully aware of o Unconscious activity Observable Behavior vs. Internal Mental Processes - What should psychologists focus on? o Observable behaviors o Unseen thinking processes Free Will vs. Determinism - What our behavior is a matter of o Free will (choices made freely) o Determinism (factors beyond willful control) Module 3 – Research in Psychology Scientific Method Question of interest -> Form hypothesis -> Research -> Communicate Findings Theories: Broad explanations and predictions involving a phenomena of interest; hypothesis based on theory Hypothesis: Prediction stated in a way in which it can be tested Operational definition: Translation of hypothesis into observable and measurable procedures that are specific and testable. Psychological Research Research aimed at discovering new knowledge o Key to understanding hypotheses and theories o Descriptive research – investigation of person, group, or behavior pattern Archival Research: Hypothesis tested by examining existing data Naturalistic Observation: Naturally occurring behavior observed Survey Research: Questions asked of people regarding their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes The Case Study: Intensive, in-depth investigation of a small group or individual Correlational Research: Relationship between two sets of variables examined Variables: Characteristics that can change Correlation Coefficient: Represents strength and direction of relationship between the variables; Correlation does not mean causation Experimental Research Experiment: Relationship between variables investigated by producing a change in one and observing the effects on the second Experimental manipulation: Change deliberately produced by experimenter Treatment: Experimenter implemented manipulation Experimental group: Group that receives treatment Control group: Group that does not receive treatment Independent Variable: Manipulated variable Dependent Variable: Measured variable; depends on independent variable Random assignment to condition: Participants assigned to groups based on chance Significant Outcome: Meaningful results Replicated Research: Repeated research to increase confidence in findings Module 4 – Critical Research Issues The Ethics of Research Guidelines protect participants o From physical harm o Privacy regarding behavior o Participation voluntary o Inform participants about nature of procedures prior to participation o Experiments must be reviewed by independent panel Informed Consent: Doc signed by participants affirming they were told about the experiment Animals in Research When alternative procedure unavailable When research is justified by its prospective value Greater experimental control Procedures potentially not possible with humans Avoiding Experimental Bias Experimental Bias: Factors distorting the way independent variable affects dependent variable (experimenter/participant expectations) Placebo: False treatment w/o any significant chemical properties; form of deception (blind procedure) Double-blind procedure: Experimenter and participant blind to drug administered, avoids experimenter bias
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