Psych 1560 Ch 2 Notes
Psych 1560 Ch 2 Notes Psych 1560
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Popular in Psychology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Chapter 2 – Neuroscience and Behavior Module 5 – Neurons: The Basic Elements of Behavior Neurons: Nerve cells; basic element of nervous system - Cell body containing a nucleus - Held in place physically by glial cells - Have ability to communicate with other cells Structure of the Neuron Dendrite: Fiber cluster at end of neuron, receives messages from other neurons Axon: Carries messages for other neurons Terminal buttons: Small bulges at end of axons, send messages to other neurons Myelin sheath: Coat of fat and protein that protects and wraps around the axon How Neurons Fire All-or-none law: Neurons either fire or don’t; are on or of Resting state: Negative electrical charge of ~-70 millivolts within a neuron Action potential: Electric nerve impulse, traveling through an axon when set of by a “trigger,” changing neuron charge from negative to positive - More positive than negative ions means, the neuron will fire - Neuron must be “reloaded” to send another message Speed of Transmission - Speed an action potential travels along an axon determined by axon size and the thickness of the myelin sheath o Thicker = faster - Diferences in neurons: o Quickness of impulse moving along axon o Potential rate of firing Mirror Neurons Mirror Neuron: Neurons that fire when a person enacts in a certain behavior or observes another person carrying out the same behavior - Basis of: o Empathy o Language development - Improperly working could cause personality disorders Where Neurons Meet Synapse: Space between neurons where axon of sending neuron communicates with dendrites of receiving neuron through use of chemical messages Neurotransmitters: Chemicals carrying messages across the synapse to the dendrite of a receiver neuron - Only successful when precisely fits into a receptor site - Types of messages: o Excitatory message: Makes more likely neuron will fire o Inhibitory message: Prevents or decreases likelihood neuron will fire Reuptake: When neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by a terminal button Module 6 – The Nervous System and the Endocrine System: Communicating with the Body Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord; part of nervous system - Spinal cord: Neuron bundle leaving the brain and running down the back o Main way to transmit messages between brain and body o Controls simple behaviors without help from brain Reflex: Involuntary response to incoming stimulus - Sensory (aferent) neurons: Transmit info from body perimeter to central nervous system - Motor (eferent) neurons: Communicate info to muscles and glands from nervous system Peripheral nervous system: Has neurons with long axons and dendrites; branches out from spinal cord and brain, reaching the extremities of the body - Somatic: Control of voluntary movements and communication of info to and from sense organs - Autonomic: Control of involuntary movement of heart, glands, lungs, and other organs Activating the Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic division: Prepares body for action in stressful situations, engages organism’s resources to respond to threat (triggers fight or flight) Parasympathetic division: Calms the body after emergency ends The Evolutionary Foundations of the Nervous System Evolutionary psychology: Branch of psychology seeking to identify behavior patterns resulting from genetic inheritance Behavioral genetics: Study of the efects on behavior by heredity The Endocrine System: Of Chemicals and Glands Endocrine system: Chemical communication network sending messages throughout body via the bloodstream - Hormones: Chemicals circulating through the blood and regulating the functioning or growth of the body - Pituitary gland: Secretes hormones controlling growth and other parts of endocrine system aka “master gland” Module 7 – The Brain The Central Core: Our “Old Brain” Central core: Controls basic functions, common to vertebrates Hindbrain: Medulla: Controls critical body functions Pons: Bridge in hindbrain, motor info transmitter, regulates sleep Cerebellum: Controls bodily balance Reticular formation: Medulla through pons, passes through midbrain and forebrain Thalamus: Located in middle of the central core, acts to relay info about senses Located in middle of the central core, acts to relay info about senses Hypothalamus: Below thalamus, maintains homeostasis, producing and regulating vital behavior The Limbic System: Beyond the Central Core Limbic system: Controls eating, aggression, and reproduction; amygdala and hippocampus; has important role in memory and learning The Cerebral Cortex: Our “New Brain” Responsible for most sophisticated info processing in brain Lobes: Four major sections - Frontal (emotions) - Parietal (sensory) - Temporal (hearing) - Occipital (sight) Motor area: Responsible for voluntary movement Sensory area: Site of tissue that corresponds to each of senses; degree of sensitivity related to amount of tissue Association areas: Site of higher mental processes Neuroplasticity and the Brain Neuroplasticity: Changes in the brain occurring throughout life span relating to addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, reorganization of info-processing areas Neurogenesis: New neuron creation in certain brain areas during adulthood The Specialization of the Hemispheres Hemispheres: Symmetrical left and right halves which control the side of body opposite to their location Lateralization: Dominance of one hemisphere in specific functions (Left – logic, reasoning; Right – creativity)
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